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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress

Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 26, 2012
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe; Blakeley, Katherine & O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report gives an overview of fuel use by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and its pursuit of numerous initiatives for reducing its fuel needs and changing the mix of energy sources that it uses. The report includes an extensive background on DOD fuel use including how the DOD uses and buys fuel, challenges and risks associated with the DOD's fuel use, DOD energy initiatives, and past legislation that addressed DOD energy use; it also presents issues for Congress and legislative action to be addressed during FY2013.
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Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate's Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate's Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Date: June 2, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: The Senate’s “pay-as-you-go,” or PAYGO, rule generally prohibits the consideration of direct spending and revenue legislation that is projected to increase (or cause) an on-budget deficit in any one of three time periods: the first year, the first 5 years, and the second 5 years, covered by the most recently adopted budget resolution. Any increase in direct spending or reduction in revenues resulting from such legislation must be offset by an equivalent amount of direct spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of the two.
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The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

Date: February 19, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. The Byrd rule provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
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The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

Date: April 7, 2005
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. The Byrd rule provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
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Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Date: November 26, 2012
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report briefly discusses the budget reconciliation process, which is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions.
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Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States

Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States

Date: June 7, 2012
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Mason, Chuck R.
Description: This report looks at issues arising from disputes between Congress and the executive branch. It begins by providing a general background on the types of international agreements that are binding upon the United States, as well as considerations affecting whether they take the form of a treaty or an executive agreement. Next, the report discusses historical precedents as to the role that security agreements have taken, with specific attention paid to past agreements entered with Afghanistan, Germany, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Iraq. The report discusses the oversight role that Congress exercises with respect to entering and implementing international agreements involving the United States.
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Congressional Veto of Executive Actions

Congressional Veto of Executive Actions

Date: November 5, 1982
Creator: Nicola, Thomas J & Norton, Clark F
Description: Statutory provisions by which Congress authorizes a Federal program to be administered by the Executive but retains the legal authority to disapprove all or part of the program before final implementation have become increasingly frequent in recent years. These statutory provisions which subject a variety of proposed executive actions to congressional review are commonly known as "congressional veto" devices.
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Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments

Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments

Date: January 10, 2001
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report provides background information on major instances, since 1970, when Congress has utilized funding cutoffs to compel the withdrawal of United States military forces from overseas military deployments. It also highlights key efforts by Congress to utilize the War Powers Resolution, since its enactment in 1973, to compel the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from foreign deployments. In this review, legislation expressing the “sense of the Congress” regarding U.S. military deployments is not addressed.
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Commitee Assignment Process in the U.S. Senate: Democratic and Republican Party Procedures

Commitee Assignment Process in the U.S. Senate: Democratic and Republican Party Procedures

Date: November 3, 2006
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Description: Because of the importance of committee work, Senators consider desirable committee assignments a priority. After general elections are over, one of the first orders of business for Senate leaders is setting the sizes and ratios of committees. This report describes the process of creating Senate committees, including the nomination process and rules and regulations specifically pertaining to said process.
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Conference Reports and Joint Explanatory Statements

Conference Reports and Joint Explanatory Statements

Date: January 24, 2001
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Description: The conference report presents the formal legislative language on which the conference committee has agreed. The joint explanatory statement explains the various elements of the conferees’ agreement in relation to the positions that the House and Senate had committed to the conference committee.
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Conference Reports and Joint Explanatory Statements

Conference Reports and Joint Explanatory Statements

Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Bach, Stanley & Davis, Christopher M
Description: The conference report presents the formal legislative language on which the conference committee has agreed. The joint explanatory statement explains the various elements of the conferees’ agreement in relation to the positions that the House and Senate had committed to the conference committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: August 14, 2009
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
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Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: September 24, 2010
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
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Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: September 3, 2010
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
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Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: August 19, 2010
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: June 23, 1998
Creator: Kay, Kendra C & Coleman, Mary F
Description: This is a directory of approximately 150 government agencies designed to assist congressional staff in contacting agencies of the legislative branch, cabinet departments and other executive branch agencies and boards and commissions. This directory contains names of congressional liaison officers, addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and occasionally e-mail addresses. It is regularly updated each spring.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: March 21, 2012
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: March 21, 2012
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: May 31, 2011
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: July 12, 2012
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 200 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Committee Controls of Agency Decisions

Committee Controls of Agency Decisions

Date: November 16, 2005
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: Congress has a long history of subjecting certain types of executive agency decisions to committee control, either by committees or subcommittees. Especially with the beginning of World War II, the executive branch agreed to committee controls as an accommodation that allowed Congress to delegate authority and funds broadly while using committees to monitor the use of that discretionary authority. These committee-agency arrangements took the form of different procedures: simply notifying the committee, obtaining committee approval, "coming into agreement" understandings, and using the congressional distinction between authorization and appropriation to exercise committee controls. This report explains how and why committee vetoes originated, the constitutional objections raised by the executive branch, the Court’s decision in Chadha, and the continuation of committee review procedures since that time.
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Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 107th Congress

Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 107th Congress

Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S & Petersen, R. Eric
Description: Senate action on its committee funding for the 107th Congress was modified as a result of the power-sharing agreement established by S. Res. 8 of January 5, 2001.1 This agreement assures Republicans and Democrats of equal staffing resources on all committees, and supplants Senate rules that require minority party control of at least one-third of each committee’s staff positions. Despite some delays in its normal timetable, the Senate, on March 8, 2001, agreed to a biennial funding resolution by unanimous consent.
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Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies

Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Crane-Hirsch, Audrey Celeste
Description: This list of about 150 congressional liaison offices is intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department