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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Heniff, Jr., Bill
Description: This report briefly discusses the budget reconciliation process, which is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Action to Overturn Agency Rules: Alternatives to the "Legislative Veto"

Congressional Action to Overturn Agency Rules: Alternatives to the "Legislative Veto"

Date: September 24, 1979
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M
Description: Congress has available a variety of statutory and non-statutory techniques, other than the "legislative veto," that have been used to overturn Federal agency rules, prevent their enforcement, limit their impact, or hinder their promulgation. This survey of the different statutory instruments of congressional control—direct overturn of rules, modification of agency jurisdiction, limitations in authorizing and appropriating statutes, requiring inter-agency consultation, and advance notification to the Congress—discusses a variety of mechanisms that vary in their use and their specificity, range of impact, and length of effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Date: December 2, 2010
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: This report discusses the following aspects of the congressional appropriations process: the annual appropriations cycle; types of appropriations measures; spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and the relationship between authorization and appropriation measures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Date: February 23, 2012
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: Congress annually considers several appropriations measures, which provide funding for numerous activities, for example, national defense, education, and homeland security, as well as general government operations. Congress has developed certain rules and practices for the consideration of appropriations measures, referred to as the congressional appropriations process. This report looks at this process as well as the three types of appropriates measures: regular appropriations bills, continuing resolutions, and supplemental appropriations bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Budget Office: Appointment and Tenure of the Director and Deputy Director

Congressional Budget Office: Appointment and Tenure of the Director and Deputy Director

Date: October 18, 2005
Creator: Keith, Robert & Bley, Mary Frances
Description: Section 20 1 (a) requires that the selection be made "without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of his fitness to perform his duties." Media reports over the years indicate that the CBO director is selected under informal practices in which the House and Senate Budget Committees alternate in recommending a nominee to the Speaker and President pro tempore of the Senate. These reports also indicate that the Speaker and President pro tempore have adhered to the Budget Committees' recommendations in making past selections. To the extent that these practices are informal, there may be disagreement with regard to their operation in the future selection of a CBO director.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances

Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances

Date: August 9, 2005
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric & Richardson, Sula P
Description: This report is one of several CRS products related to congressional continuity and contingency planning.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress

Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 26, 2012
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe; Blakeley, Katherine & O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report gives an overview of fuel use by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and its pursuit of numerous initiatives for reducing its fuel needs and changing the mix of energy sources that it uses. The report includes an extensive background on DOD fuel use including how the DOD uses and buys fuel, challenges and risks associated with the DOD's fuel use, DOD energy initiatives, and past legislation that addressed DOD energy use; it also presents issues for Congress and legislative action to be addressed during FY2013.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate's Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate's Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Date: June 2, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: The Senate’s “pay-as-you-go,” or PAYGO, rule generally prohibits the consideration of direct spending and revenue legislation that is projected to increase (or cause) an on-budget deficit in any one of three time periods: the first year, the first 5 years, and the second 5 years, covered by the most recently adopted budget resolution. Any increase in direct spending or reduction in revenues resulting from such legislation must be offset by an equivalent amount of direct spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of the two.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

Date: February 19, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. The Byrd rule provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

Date: April 7, 2005
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. The Byrd rule provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department