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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff
The Congressional Research Service frequently receives inquiries about legislative planning. Legislative and office action plans are often used by congressional offices for almost every significant project, from organizing an extensive conference in the district or state to introducing and guiding legislation. A major action plan requires a firm understanding of the project's goal, a research strategy, and a time line for completing the project. This report presents some of the factors usually considered in preparing an action plan. The information is provided in three sections. The first provides an overview which lays out summary considerations. The second raises questions to consider in preparing an outline for a project. The third details a sample action plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491602/
Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2011
The average service tenure of members of the Senate and House of Representatives has varied substantially since 1789. This report presents data on member tenure and a historical analysis of tenure trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490913/
Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2011
The average service tenure of members of the Senate and House of Representatives has varied substantially since 1789. This report presents data on member tenure and a historical analysis of tenure trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491067/
Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Former Members of Congress
This report discusses the courtesies and privileges afforded to Members of the House and Senate, after they leave office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491446/
House of Representatives and Senate Staff Levels in Member, Committee, Leadership, and Other Offices, 1977-2010
This report provides staffing levels in House and Senate Member, committee, leadership, and other offices since 1977. Data presented here are based on staff listed by chamber entity (offices of Members, committees, leaders, officers, officials, and other entities) in telephone directories published by the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491410/
Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage
This report provides a history and overview of the MRA and examines spending patterns in the 109th Congress (2005 and 2006). The data exclude non-voting Members, including Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Members who were not in Congress for all of 2005, whether the Member left Congress prior to the end of the year or entered any time after the beginning of the session, were also excluded. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491177/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the purpose and activities of Committee on House Administration as congressional Member organizations (CMO) and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), and the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463465/
Legislative Research for Congressional Staff: How to Find Documents and Other Resources
This report is one of a series of reports on legislative process and research; it is intended to serve as a finding aid to sources of information, such as documents, news articles, analysis, contacts and services, used in legislative research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463200/
Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2015
This report presents data on Member tenure and a historical analysis of tenure trends. During the 19th century, the average service of Representatives and Senators remained roughly constant, with little or no change over time; the average years of service was slightly higher for the first half of the century than during the second. During the late 19th and through the 20th century, the average years of service for Senators and Representatives steadily increased. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501897/
Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff
This report presents some of the factors usually considered in preparing a legislative or office action plan. The information is provided in three sections: (1) an overview which lays out summary consideration, (2) questions to consider in preparing an outline for a project, and (3) a sample action plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503455/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the historical development and contemporary role of congressional Member organizations (CMOs) in the House and informal Member groups in both the House and the Senate. It discusses the differences between CMOs and informal Member groups, and the reasons Members form these groups with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. The report also presents the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior, and the subsequent regulation of CMOs in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503319/
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress
This report provides information on the 33 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in the United States Congress from 1903 to the present, including 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. These Resident Commissioners served from 1907-1946 while the Philippines were a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born). Information on Members and territorial delegates includes party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2259/
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress
This report provides information on the 33 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in the United States Congress from 1903 to the present, including 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. These Resident Commissioners served from 1907-1946 while the Philippines were a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born). Information on Members and territorial delegates includes party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3953/
Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges
This report discusses the circumstances surrounding COOP planning, including provisions for alternative meeting sites and methods for conducting House and Senate meetings and floor sessions when Capitol facilities are not available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4007/
Expulsion and Censure Actions Taken by the Full Senate Against Members
The Senate has censured nine Senators for various misconduct, including conduct not a violation of any law or specific written Senate ethics rule, when such conduct is found contrary to "acceptable norms of ethical conduct in the Senate," contrary to "accepted morals" and "senatorial ethics," when found to "derogate from the public trust expected of a Senator," and/or found to be "reprehensible" conduct which brings the Senate into "dishonor and disrepute." Conduct resulting in Senate "censure" has included violating orders of secrecy of documents; fighting in the Senate ("censure"); allowing a lobbyist with interests in particular legislation to be on official staff with access to the secret considerations of the legislation by committee ("condemn"); non-cooperation and abuse of investigating committees of the Senate ("condemn"); financial irregularities concerning political contributions ("censure"), office expenses and contributions ("denounce"), and excessive honoraria, official reimbursements and gifts ("denounce"). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26033/
Murder or Attempted Murder of a Member of Congress and Other Federal Officials and Employees: Implications in Federal Criminal Law and Procedure of Events in Tucson
Report describing the federal procedures and attendant legal provisions generally associated with the prosecution of cases regarding the killing and attempted killing of federal officers and employees in the performance of their official duties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227706/
Congress and Foreign Policy: Selected References
This spreading list presents literature on the role of Congress in the conduct of foreign relations. Citations include such topics as the relationship between Congress and the executive, role of committees, and the impact of foreign policy decisions. The focus is on the current literature, but older materials are included to provide historical background on this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9614/
Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 107th Congress
This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 107th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2292/
Colleges and Universities Attended by Senators of the 109th Congress
This report identifies the colleges and universities attended by Senators serving in the 109th Congress. Where available in published sources, the degrees earned are also listed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7902/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the purpose and activities of Committee on House Administration as congressional Member organizations (CMO) and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), and the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227647/
Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs919/
Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3986/
Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage
This report provides a history and overview of the Members' Representational Allowance (MRA) and examines spending patterns over selected years--2005, 2006, 2007, 2011, and 2012. The data exclude non-voting Members, including Delegates and the Resident Commissioner, as well as Members who were not in Congress for the entirety of the session. Information is provided on total spending and spending for various categories. The data collected demonstrate that, despite variations when considering all Members, many Members allocate their spending in a similar manner. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700898/
Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
Report that covers the logistics and background of the Congressional Pension program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227962/
Legislative Research for Congressional Staff: How to Find Documents and Other Resources
This report is one of a series of reports on legislative process and research; it is intended to serve as a finding aid to sources of information, such as documents, news articles, analysis, contacts and services, used in legislative research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700759/
Pages of the United States Congress: History, Background Information, and Proposals for Change
This report provides a brief history of the congressional page programs, including their duties, and background information about House and Senate pages. It also has an overview of changes and reforms from 1981-2001, and proposed changes, reforms, and various issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743561/
Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Departing and Former Senators
This report provides information on selected privileges and courtesies (with the exception of federal health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits) extended to departing and former Senators. Some are derived from law and Senate Rules, but most are courtesies that have been extended as a matter of custom. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824506/
Guide to Individuals Seated on the Senate Dais
This report briefly discusses where various individuals are seated in the Senate chamber. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824457/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the purpose and activities of CMOs and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations, and the House’s decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. Many of the steps in the guide may be of interest to Senators and their staff who are considering forming an informal Member group in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822390/
The Federal Minimum Wage and American Samoa
This report discusses the federal minimum wage in American Samoa. Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the minimum wage for the islands is fixed by a commission established by the Secretary of Labor. The minimum wage for fish processing is currently $3.26 an hour. Were Congress to extend the general (federal) minimum wage to American Samoa (and raise it to $7.25 an hour, as is currently proposed), the fish processing industry might absorb the increase, change the way it processes tuna, or migrate to other low-wage countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc819211/
The Federal Minimum Wage and American Samoa
This report discusses the federal minimum wage in American Samoa. Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the minimum wage for the islands is fixed by a commission established by the Secretary of Labor. The minimum wage for fish processing is currently $3.26 an hour. Were Congress to extend the general (federal) minimum wage to American Samoa (and raise it to $7.25 an hour, as is currently proposed), the fish processing industry might absorb the increase, change the way it processes tuna, or migrate to other low-wage countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822399/
Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges
This report discusses the circumstances surrounding COOP planning, including provisions for alternative meeting sites and methods for conducting House and Senate meetings and floor sessions when Capitol facilities are not available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821151/
Members’ Representational Allowance: History and Usage
This report provides a history and overview of the the Members’ Representational Allowance (MRA) and examines spending patterns in the 109th Congress (2005 and 2006), the two most recent years for which all billing is complete and spending amounts have been finalized, since late-arriving bills may be paid for up to two years following the end of the MRA year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821419/
Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the current status of FY2014 legislative branch appropriations as well as figures and tables detailing prior year funding, and more detailed information about legislative branch funding issues for the Senate, House of Representatives, and government agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272051/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272039/
Senate Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments
This report outlines information about the senate Rule XXV and party conference rules that address committee assignments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287949/
FY2014 Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components
This report summarizes the components of the four FY2014 continuing resolutions. They include P.L. 113-39 (Pay Our Military Act), P.L. 113-44 (Department of Defense Survivor Benefits Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014), P.L. 113-46 (Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014), and P.L. 113-73 (Making Further Continuing Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2014, and for Other Purposes). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282298/
Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations
This report discusses the legislative branch appropriations bill that provides funding for the Senate, House of Representatives, Joint Items, Capitol Police, Office of Compliance, Congressional Budget Office (CBO), Architect of the Capitol (AOC), Library of Congress (LOC) -- including the Congressional Research Service (CRS) -- Government Printing Office (GPO), Government Accountability Office (GAO), and Open World Leadership Center. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306505/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332887/
Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources
This report discusses House and Senate rules and guidelines, laws, and regulations affecting congressional casework, as well as the role of caseworkers. It also provides sample outlines and document templates for implementing and managing congressional casework. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491264/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491368/
Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the current status of FY2015 legislative branch appropriations. The report then addresses the FY2015 budget requests, hearings, and funding issues for individual legislative branch agencies and entities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491414/
Authorization of Appropriations: Procedural and Legal Issues
This report provides a brief explanation of the distinction between authorized and unauthorized appropriations, and its significance for understanding how appropriations and other legislation work in conjunction to determine how agencies may spend appropriated funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462656/
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961: Authorizations and Corresponding Appropriations
This report presents the authorities of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and correlates those authorities with the operative appropriations measure (division F of P.L. 111-117; 123 Stat. 3312) that funds those authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462648/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462296/
Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08): Status of Benefits Prior to Expiration
This report summarizes the structure of Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08) benefits available prior to program expiration at the end of calendar year 2013 and provides the legislative history of the EUC08 program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462319/
Sessions, Adjournments, and Recesses of Congress
This report first describes how pertinent rules and practices regulate the daily sessions of Congress and their adjournments and recesses, including discussion of the "legislative day." It then develops a corresponding discussion for the annual sessions of Congress, which addresses, among other things, the use of "pro forma sessions." The report clarifies certain situations in which terms may simultaneously apply in different ways in relation to the daily session and to the annual session. Finally, the report notes some of the most important implications of the occurrence of sessions, adjournments, and recesses in relation to such matters as presidential action on legislation, recess appointments by the President, the operation of statutory expedited procedures ("fast track" procedures), and "lame duck" (post-election) sessions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462523/
One-Minute Speeches: Current House Practices
This report examines current House practices governing recognition for one-minute speeches, the delivery of one minutes, and their insertion in the Congressional Record. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463250/
2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review: Evolution of Strategic Review
The quadrennial homeland security review is a process in which DHS examines the nation's homeland security strategy; the report provides an explanation of this process. Neither the review process nor the report to Congress is a strategy, instead the 2014 QHSR (both the process and report) are part of the constant reevaluation of the nation's homeland security and part of the process by which the combined National and Homeland Security Staff develops the next iteration of the national security strategy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461916/
Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years
This report provides information on congressional practices with respect to the duration of continuing resolutions, including the use of full-year measures, and focuses particularly on the period covering FY1998-FY2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463273/