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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances

Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances

Date: August 9, 2005
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric & Richardson, Sula P
Description: This report is one of several CRS products related to congressional continuity and contingency planning.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress

Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 26, 2012
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe; Blakeley, Katherine & O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report gives an overview of fuel use by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and its pursuit of numerous initiatives for reducing its fuel needs and changing the mix of energy sources that it uses. The report includes an extensive background on DOD fuel use including how the DOD uses and buys fuel, challenges and risks associated with the DOD's fuel use, DOD energy initiatives, and past legislation that addressed DOD energy use; it also presents issues for Congress and legislative action to be addressed during FY2013.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate's Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate's Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Date: June 2, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: The Senate’s “pay-as-you-go,” or PAYGO, rule generally prohibits the consideration of direct spending and revenue legislation that is projected to increase (or cause) an on-budget deficit in any one of three time periods: the first year, the first 5 years, and the second 5 years, covered by the most recently adopted budget resolution. Any increase in direct spending or reduction in revenues resulting from such legislation must be offset by an equivalent amount of direct spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of the two.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

Date: February 19, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. The Byrd rule provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule

Date: April 7, 2005
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. The Byrd rule provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Date: November 26, 2012
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report briefly discusses the budget reconciliation process, which is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States

Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States

Date: June 7, 2012
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Mason, Chuck R.
Description: This report looks at issues arising from disputes between Congress and the executive branch. It begins by providing a general background on the types of international agreements that are binding upon the United States, as well as considerations affecting whether they take the form of a treaty or an executive agreement. Next, the report discusses historical precedents as to the role that security agreements have taken, with specific attention paid to past agreements entered with Afghanistan, Germany, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Iraq. The report discusses the oversight role that Congress exercises with respect to entering and implementing international agreements involving the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Veto of Executive Actions

Congressional Veto of Executive Actions

Date: November 5, 1982
Creator: Nicola, Thomas J & Norton, Clark F
Description: Statutory provisions by which Congress authorizes a Federal program to be administered by the Executive but retains the legal authority to disapprove all or part of the program before final implementation have become increasingly frequent in recent years. These statutory provisions which subject a variety of proposed executive actions to congressional review are commonly known as "congressional veto" devices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments

Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments

Date: January 10, 2001
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report provides background information on major instances, since 1970, when Congress has utilized funding cutoffs to compel the withdrawal of United States military forces from overseas military deployments. It also highlights key efforts by Congress to utilize the War Powers Resolution, since its enactment in 1973, to compel the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from foreign deployments. In this review, legislation expressing the “sense of the Congress” regarding U.S. military deployments is not addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commitee Assignment Process in the U.S. Senate: Democratic and Republican Party Procedures

Commitee Assignment Process in the U.S. Senate: Democratic and Republican Party Procedures

Date: November 3, 2006
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Description: Because of the importance of committee work, Senators consider desirable committee assignments a priority. After general elections are over, one of the first orders of business for Senate leaders is setting the sizes and ratios of committees. This report describes the process of creating Senate committees, including the nomination process and rules and regulations specifically pertaining to said process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department