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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
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Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress

Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress

Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments Between the Houses

Amendments Between the Houses

Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. An exchange of amendments between the houses resolves these differences.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: The term “budget process,” when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President’s budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report briefly describes the process by which Congress seeks to pass a law. During this process Congress uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, that is then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: This report describes the annual appropriations cycle from the President’s submission of his annual budget through enactment of the appropriations measures. It describes the three types of appropriations measures—regular appropriations bills, continuing resolutions, and supplemental bills. It explains the spending ceilings for appropriations bills that are associated with the budget resolution and the sequestration process, including a description of the mechanisms used to enforce the ceilings. It also explains the authorization appropriations process, which prohibits certain provisions in some of the appropriations bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: Congress annually considers 13 or more appropriations measures, which provide funding for numerous activities, for example, national defense, education, homeland security, and crime. These measures also fund general government operations such as the administration of federal agencies. Congress has developed certain rules and practices for the consideration of appropriations measures, referred to as the congressional appropriations process. This report discusses the following aspects of this process: Annual appropriations cycle; Spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and Prohibitions against certain language in appropriations measures that violate separation of the authorization and appropriation functions into separate measures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutionality of a Senate Filibuster of a Judicial Nomination

Constitutionality of a Senate Filibuster of a Judicial Nomination

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Shampansky, Jay R
Description: This report provides an overview of the major issues which have been raised recently in the Senate regarding the Judicial Nominations, Filibusters, and the Constitution: When a Majority Is Denied Its Right to Consent and in the press concerning the constitutionality of a Senate filibuster (i.e., extended debate) of a judicial nomination.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commonly Used Motions and Requests in the House of Representatives

Commonly Used Motions and Requests in the House of Representatives

Date: November 30, 2004
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Description: This report identifies the most commonly used motions and requests available to Members during proceedings in the House of Representatives. The report divides the motions and requests into seven broad categories, based on when the motion or request is in order and who can make the motion or request. Daily Business is the category that includes items that are routine to the conduct of business in the House each day, such as the motion to adjourn. Decorum and Privilege covers issues of the rights and privileges of Members and the House and how Members conduct themselves on the floor.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Gambling: A Sketch of Legislative Proposals in the 108th Congress

Internet Gambling: A Sketch of Legislative Proposals in the 108th Congress

Date: November 29, 2004
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Date: November 29, 2004
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: Each major party in the House has a leadership hierarchy. This report summarizes the election, duties, and responsibilities of the Speaker of the House, the majority and minority leaders, and the whips and whip system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2004

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2004

Date: November 23, 2004
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Description: This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the process for awarding Congressional Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees

9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Description: On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments in the House: Types and Forms

Amendments in the House: Types and Forms

Date: November 18, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report briefly discusses the amending process, which is central to the consideration of legislation by the House of Representatives, and the rules, practices, and precedents that underlie this process frequently depend on distinguishing among amendments based on their type and form. Simply put, not all amendments are equal in a procedural sense, and the form or type of amendment frequently determines what further amendments may be offered, and therefore what alternatives the House may choose among.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Date: November 15, 2004
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Procedural Distinctions between the House and the Committee of the Whole

Procedural Distinctions between the House and the Committee of the Whole

Date: November 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report very briefly explains some of the chief distinctions between consideration in the House of Representatives operating as the House vs. consideration in Committee of the Whole.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the House

Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the House

Date: November 5, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report briefly discusses procedures regarding conference reports in the House of Representatives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the Senate

Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the Senate

Date: November 5, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report briefly discusses procedure regarding conference reports in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments in Disagreement

Amendments in Disagreement

Date: November 3, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. The House and Senate must approve an identical version of a measure before it may be presented for the President's approval or veto. If the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure, the differences must first be resolved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Date: November 2, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report briefly describes the various types of amendments that take place in the Senate. It has sections describing distinctions among amendments, degrees of amendments, forms of amendments, and the scope of amendments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Consolidating Intelligence Appropriation and Authorization in a Single Committee: 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Alternatives

Consolidating Intelligence Appropriation and Authorization in a Single Committee: 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Alternatives

Date: October 29, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: This report focuses on the commission’s proposal, to consolidate appropriation and authorization functions in the existing Senate and House Select Intelligence Committees. The report (1) describes the proposal; (2) compares it to the existing committee system; (3) describes a 19th century precedent for consolidation; (4) provides selected arguments in favor of consolidation as well as against; (5) discusses two alternatives to consolidating authorization and appropriation functions: a Joint Committee on Intelligence and separate intelligence appropriations subcommittees in the Senate and House Committees on Appropriations; and (6) describes current legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress

Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R & Isler, Margaret M
Description: The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress

Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress

Date: October 26, 2004
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress

Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: October 26, 2004
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Description: This report discusses the United States and Mexico relations and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The major issues discussed by Congress are trade, migration/border security, drug trafficking, and political issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department