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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Expulsion, Censure, Reprimand, and Fine: Legislative Discipline in the House of Representatives
This report discusses the processes of expulsion and censure in the House of Representatives. The House is expressly authorized within the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 5, clause 2) to discipline or "punish" its own Members. It is designed as a measure to protect the institutional integrity of the House of Representatives, its proceedings and its reputation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855793/
Midnight Rules: Congressional Oversight and Options
This report discusses "midnight rulemaking," referring to the phenomenon during the final months of recent presidential administrations when federal agencies have typically issued a larger number of rules relative to comparable time periods earlier in the administration. It likely occurs because the outgoing presidential administration wants to achieve certain policy goals before the end of its term. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855745/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2016
This report contains information on actions taken that affect the salaries for members of Congress, broken down by year and starting with the establishment of the Ethics Reform Act adjustment procedure (1990). It also provides background on the most recent developments and information on other related floor action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855882/
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations
This report examines the political and economic situation in Venezuela and U.S.-Venezuelan relations. It is divided into three main sections -- political background, current political and economic environment, U.S. relations and policy -- and also includes introductory and outlook information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855788/
Membership of the 114th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 114th Congress (2015-2016). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855768/
Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations
The first section of this report provides an overview of the consideration of FY2017 legislative branch appropriations, with subsections covering each action. It is followed by a section on prior year actions and funding, which contains historical tables. The report then addresses the FY2017 budget requests, requested administrative language, and selected funding issues for individual legislative branch agencies and entities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855810/
"Sense of" Resolutions and Provisions
This report discusses specific kinds of resolutions by which Congress may formally express opinions about subjects of current national interest through freestanding simple or concurrent resolutions (called generically "sense of the House," "sense of the Senate," or "sense of the Congress" resolutions). These opinions expressing the views of one or both chambers may be included in other legislation upon introduction or subsequently added by amendment. This report identifies the various forms these expressions may take and the procedures governing such actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855884/
The Nunn-McCurdy Act: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress
This report examines the the Nunn-McCurdy Act, which requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to report to Congress whenever a major defense acquisition program experiences cost overruns that exceed certain thresholds. As a result of the Nunn-McCurdy Act, Congress has increased visibility into the cost performance of the acquisition stage of MDAPs. However, some analysts suggest that Nunn-McCurdy is not a sufficiently comprehensive reporting mechanism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855786/
Legislative Procedures for Adjusting the Public Debt Limit: A Brief Overview
This report discusses the procedure for adjusting the public debt limit. Nearly all of the outstanding debt of the federal government is subject to a statutory limit, which is set forth as a dollar limitation in 31 U.S.C. 3101(b). From time to time, Congress considers and passes legislation to adjust or suspend this limit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855881/
Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management
This report describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847495/
Calling Up Business on the Senate Floor
This report outlines processes or customs most often used by the Senate and then discusses some procedures less often used to call up business. The Senate takes up measures and matters under procedures set in Senate rules and by long-standing customs, thereby giving it flexibility in setting its floor agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847527/
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This report is a list of about 200 congressional liaison offices, intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847750/
House Committee Chairs: Considerations, Decisions, and Actions as One Congress Ends and a New Congress Begins
This report covers the period from the House's early organization meetings in November to approximately March or April following the convening of a new Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847738/
Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA): History and Usage
This report provides a history of the Senators' Official Personnel and Office Expense Account (SOPOEA) and an overview of recent developments, including funding levels. It also analyzes actual SOPOEA spending patterns in selected years. The allowance is provided on a fiscal year basis (i.e., October 1-September 30) in the annual legislative branch appropriations bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824574/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
This report provides historical tables on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; details on enacted legislation with language prohibiting the automatic annual pay adjustment since the most recent adjustment; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared with actual adjustments in Member pay; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824441/
Senate Committee Rules in the 114th Congress: Key Provisions
This report first provides a brief overview of Senate rules as they pertain to committee actions. It then provides tables that summarize selected, key features of each committee's rules in regard to meeting day, hearing and meeting notice requirements, scheduling of witnesses, hearing quorum, business quorum, amendment filing requirements, proxy voting, polling, nominations, investigations, and subpoenas. In addition, the report looks at selected unique provisions some committees have included in their rules in the miscellaneous category. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824643/
Agency Final Rules Submitted After May 16, 2016, May Be Subject to Disapproval in 2017 Under the Congressional Review Act
This report briefly discusses The Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. ยงยง801-808), enacted as part of the 104th Congress's (1995-1996) "Contract with America," which established a special parliamentary mechanism whereby Congress can disapprove a final rule promulgated by a federal agency. With a change in the occupancy of the White House taking place in 2017, some in Congress are paying renewed attention to a parliamentary mechanism that might enable a new Congress and new President to overturn agency final rules of the Obama Administration issued after mid-May 2016. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824520/
Legislative Branch: FY2016 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the consideration of FY2016 legislative branch appropriations, with subsections covering each action. It also addresses the FY2016 budget requests, hearings, and requested administrative language or other major funding issues for individual legislative branch agencies and entities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824546/
Provisions of the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3762
This report includes a table listing all provisions in H.R. 3762 and the Senate amendment to H.R. 3762 that would amend or repeal Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions. It also provides a brief explanation of the provisions included in the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3762. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824795/
Congress and the Budget: 2016 Actions and Events
This report seeks to assist in (1) anticipating what federal budget-related actions might occur within the year 2016, and (2) staying abreast of budget actions that occur this year. It provides a general description of the recurrent types of budgetary actions, and reflects on current events that unfold in each category during 2016. In addition, it includes information on certain events that may affect Congress's work on the budget, such as the President's budget request and the Congressional Budget Office's budget and economic outlook. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824676/
Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices
The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the components of Continuing Resolutions (CRs) and a longitudinal analysis of recent congressional practices. Consequently, the data and analysis in this report are inclusive of all appropriations acts entitled or otherwise designated as providing continuing appropriations. The first section of this report explains six of the possible main components of CRs: coverage, duration, funding rate, restrictions on new activities, anomalies, and legislative provisions. The second section discusses the enactment of regular appropriations prior to the start of the fiscal year and the number of regular appropriations bills enacted through a CR since FY1977. The third section analyzes variations in the number and duration of CRs enacted each fiscal year since FY1997, the most recent fiscal year that all regular appropriations were enacted on time. Finally, the fourth section of this report discusses the features of the 15 CRs that provided funding through the remainder of the fiscal year since FY1977. A list of all CRs enacted between FY1977 and FY2016 is provided at the end of this report in Table 4. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824790/
Omnibus Appropriations Acts: Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides pertinent background information, reviews the recent enactment of omnibus appropriation measures, and briefly addresses several issues raised by their use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824703/
The Motion to Recommit in the House of Representatives
This report provides an overview of House rules and precedents governing the motion to recommit and describes procedural and political effects of the motion. The motion to recommit provides a final opportunity for the House to affect a measure before passage, either by amending the measure or sending it back to committee. The motion to recommit is often referred to as "the minority's motion," because preference in recognition for offering a motion to recommit is given to a member of the minority party who is opposed to the bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824626/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2015
This report discusses the process through which members of Congress are compensated. Members of Congress only receive salaries during the terms for which they are elected. Former Members may be eligible for retirement benefits. This report contains information on actions taken affecting each pay year since the establishment of the Ethics Reform Act adjustment procedure, as well as information on other relevant floor action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795410/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
This report provides historical tables on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; details on enacted legislation with language prohibiting the automatic annual pay adjustment since the most recent adjustment; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared with actual adjustments in Member pay; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795813/
The Enactment of Appropriations Measures During Lame Duck Sessions
This report provides information on the enactment of regular and continuing appropriations measures in connection with lame duck sessions occurring between 1994 and 2014. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795901/
House Standing Committee Chairs and Ranking Minority Members: Rules Governing Selection Procedures
House rules, Republican Conference rules, and Democratic Caucus rules each detail aspects of the procedures followed in selecting standing committee chairs and ranking minority members. This report summarizes those procedures and lists membership on each party's steering committee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795515/
The Speaker of the House: House Officer, Party Leader, and Representative
This report discusses the three roles of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who is widely viewed as symbolizing the power and authority of the House. The Speaker is presiding officer of the House, serves as leader of the majority party conference, and is an elected Member of the House. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795459/
Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management
This report describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. Finally, sample documents that could be used by congressional offices at various stages of the nomination selection process are included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795850/
Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913-2015
This report provides data on elections of the Speaker in each Congress since 1913, when the House first reached its present size of 435 Members. During that period (63rd through 114th Congresses), a Speaker was elected five times with the votes of less than a majority of the full membership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795543/
Membership of the 114th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 114th Congress (2015-2016). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795608/
Aiding Israel after the Iran Nuclear Deal: Issues for Congress
This report discusses recent indications from the Obama administration that the United States may provide Israel with additional military aid during the implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795722/
Apportioning Seats in the U.S. House of Representatives Using the 2013 Estimated Citizen Population
This report examines the impact on the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives if such a change were to occur, using an estimate of the 2013 citizen population in place of the 2010 apportionment population to determine the potential distribution of seats in the House of Representatives for the 114th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795351/
Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-2015
This report briefly describes current responsibilities and selection mechanisms for 15 House and Senate party leadership posts and provides tables with historical data, including service dates, party affiliation, and other information for each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795611/
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents
This report provides links to cybersecurity legislation in the 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses and a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795583/
Congressional Action on FY2016 Appropriations Measures
This report provides information on the congressional consideration of the FY2016 regular appropriations bills and the FY2016 continuing resolution (CR). It also discusses the statutory and procedural budget enforcement framework for FY2016 appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795559/
A Survey of House and Senate Committee Rules on Subpoenas
This report surveys House committees' subpoena rules first and then Senate committees' subpoena rules. Both surveys begin with a brief description of chamber rules, followed by a short summary of that chamber's committees' rules that are related to subpoenas but do not directly pertain to authorizing or issuing subpoenas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795460/
Electing the Speaker of the House of Representatives: Frequently Asked Questions
This report briefly poses and answers several "frequently asked questions" in relation to the floor proceedings used to elect a Speaker of the House. Current practice for electing a Speaker, either at the start of a Congress or in the event of a vacancy, is by roll-call vote, during which Members state aloud the name of their preferred candidate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795548/
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents
This report provides links to cybersecurity legislation in the 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795375/
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
This report summarizes the points of order currently in effect under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in various other measures that have a direct impact on budget enforcement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795589/
Legislative Branch Agency Appointments: History, Processes, and Recent Actions
This report contains information on the legislative branch agency heads' appointment processes, length of tenures (if terms are set), reappointment or removal provisions (if any), salaries and benefits, and most recent appointments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795377/
Enrollment of Legislation: Relevant Congressional Procedures
This report discusses the enrollment process of bills and resolutions in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795455/
Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 2015
This report details the evolution of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees' subcommittee structure from the 1920s to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795783/
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents
This report provides links to cybersecurity legislation in the 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795812/
Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides information on current debates over exchange rates in the global economy. It offers an overview of how exchange rates work; analyzes specific disagreements and debates; and examines existing frameworks for potentially addressing currency disputes. It also lays out some policy options available to Congress, should Members want to take action on exchange rate issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795550/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
This report provides historical tables on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; details on enacted legislation with language prohibiting the automatic annual pay adjustment since the most recent adjustment; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared with actual adjustments in Member pay; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795413/
Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief
This report provides, in brief, analysis of the congressional procedural provisions laid out in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-17). The act establishes a period for Congress to review any comprehensive agreement, during which certain presidential actions to provide relief from sanctions on Iran are barred. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770535/
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This report is a list of about 200 congressional liaison offices, intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. In each case, the information was supplied by the agency itself and is current as of the date of publication. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743629/
Statutory Qualifications for Executive Branch Positions
This report provides background on the framework for constitutional appointments, discusses Congress's constitutional authority to set qualifications for appointees, discusses congressional practices in this area, and provides related analysis and options. It also includes two tables with examples of existing positions with qualification requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770543/
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents
This report provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and individuals worldwide. Attacks have various targets, depending upon whether the attacker was seeking military intelligence, conducting diplomatic or industrial espionage, engaging in cybercrime, or intimidating political activists; additionally attributing an attack to a specific location can be difficult, which may make responding problematic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743621/
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