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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 1131 - 1180 of 1,873
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Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the House
This report briefly discusses procedures regarding conference reports in the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824460/
Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the Senate
This report briefly discusses procedure regarding conference reports in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824630/
Amendments in Disagreement
This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. The House and Senate must approve an identical version of a measure before it may be presented for the President's approval or veto. If the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure, the differences must first be resolved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824726/
Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms
This report briefly describes the various types of amendments that take place in the Senate. It has sections describing distinctions among amendments, degrees of amendments, forms of amendments, and the scope of amendments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824758/
Consolidating Intelligence Appropriation and Authorization in a Single Committee: 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Alternatives
This report focuses on the commission’s proposal, to consolidate appropriation and authorization functions in the existing Senate and House Select Intelligence Committees. The report (1) describes the proposal; (2) compares it to the existing committee system; (3) describes a 19th century precedent for consolidation; (4) provides selected arguments in favor of consolidation as well as against; (5) discusses two alternatives to consolidating authorization and appropriation functions: a Joint Committee on Intelligence and separate intelligence appropriations subcommittees in the Senate and House Committees on Appropriations; and (6) describes current legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7581/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5885/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5919/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress
This report discusses the United States and Mexico relations and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The major issues discussed by Congress are trade, migration/border security, drug trafficking, and political issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8467/
Clean Water Act Issues in the 108th Congress
The Clean Water Act Issues has again received attention in the 108th Congress. At issue is how the federal government will assist states and cities in meeting needs to rebuild, repair, and upgrade wastewater treatment plants, especially in light of capital costs which are projected to be as much as $390 billion over the next two decades. In October 2004, the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee reported legislation to authorize $20 billion in funding for clean water infrastructure (S. 2550), while in July 2003, a House Transportation and Infrastructure subcommittee also approved a water infrastructure financing bill (H.R. 1560). Still, prospects for further action during the 108th Congress are uncertain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5883/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5884/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 108th Congress
The conference report on the energy bill (H.R. 6), which came to the House and Senate floor for action the week of November 17, 2003, contained several Clean Air Act provisions. Most of these are also contained in S. 2095, a revised version of the bill introduced February 12, 2004, and in H.R. 4503, which passed the House June 15, 2004. Most of the air provisions concern the gasoline additives MTBE and ethanol, used to meet Clean Air Act requirements that reformulated gasoline (RFG) sold in the nation’s worst ozone nonattainment areas contain at least 2% oxygen, to improve combustion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5882/
Senate Committee Reports: Required Contents
This report briefly describes Senate rules and statutes that specify information that must be included as part of the written report about the purposes and provisions of a proposed measure. Senate committees also may include additional items in their reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824621/
Congressional Oversight Manual
Throughout its history, Congress has engaged in oversight of the executive branch — the review, monitoring, and supervision of the implementation of public policy. The first several Congresses inaugurated such important oversight techniques as special investigations, reporting requirements, resolutions of inquiry, and use of the appropriations process to review executive activity. Contemporary developments, moreover, have increased the legislature’s capacity and capabilities to check on and check the Executive. Public laws and congressional rules have measurably enhanced Congress’s implied power under the Constitution to conduct oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7086/
Private Bills: Procedure in the House
This report briefly discusses private bills, which are bills providing benefits to specified individuals (including corporate bodies). Individuals sometimes request relief through private law when administrative or legal remedies are exhausted, but Congress seems more often to view private legislation as appropriate when no other remedy is available, and when enactment would, in a broad sense, afford equity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824818/
Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5767/
Guide to Individuals Seated on the Senate Dais
This report briefly discusses where various individuals are seated in the Senate chamber. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824457/
S.Res. 445: Senate Committee Reorganization for Homeland Security and Intelligence Matters
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5772/
Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7497/
Pakistan's Domestic Political Developments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7391/
Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: Issues of U.S. Military Involvement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5817/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824456/
Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Departing and Former Senators
This report provides information on selected privileges and courtesies (with the exception of federal health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits) extended to departing and former Senators. Some are derived from law and Senate Rules, but most are courtesies that have been extended as a matter of custom. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824506/
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress
The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10039/
Membership of the 108th Congress: A Profile
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5768/
Salaries of Members of Congress: A List of Payable Rates and Effective Dates, 1789-2004
This report summarizes by what measures the Constitution requires Congress to determine its own pay, the annual payment adjustment procedure, changes in pay over time since 1789, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc816288/
A Joint Committee on Intelligence: Proposals and Options from the 9/11 Commission and Others
This report first describes the current select committees on intelligence and briefly covers the former Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. It then sets forth proposed characteristics for a Joint Committee on Intelligence, their differences, and their pros and cons; it also discusses alternatives for congressional oversight in the field. This report will be updated as events dictate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5976/
9/11 Commission Recommendations: Joint Committee on Atomic Energy - A Model for Congressional Oversight?
This report focuses on that portion of the 9/11 Commission recommendation that urges Congress to consider the model of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (JCAE). It provides an outline of the history, structure, and powers of the JCAE and analyzes a number of issues that might be considered by policymakers as they weigh the suitability of the JCAE as a possible model when crafting congressional oversight mechanisms for intelligence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5766/
Congressional Budget Resolutions: Selected Statistics and Information Guide
This report provides current and historical information on the budget resolution. It provides a list of the budget resolutions adopted and rejected by Congress since implementation of the CBA, including the U.S. Statutes-at-Large citations and committee report numbers, and describes their formulation and content. The report provides a table of selected optional components, a list of reconciliation measures, and information on the number of years covered by budget resolutions. It also provides information on the consideration and adoption of budget resolutions, including an identification of the House special rules that provided for consideration of budget resolutions; the amendments in the nature of a substitute to the budget resolution considered in the House; the number and disposition of House and Senate amendments to budget resolutions; and dates of House and Senate action on budget resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7087/
Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: Term Limits and Assignment Limitations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5982/
Congressional Salaries and Allowances
This report provides basic information on congressional salaries and allowances. First, the report briefly summarizes the current salary of Members of Congress, limits on their outside earned income and honoraria, and applicable health insurance and retirement benefits. Second, it provides information on allowances available to Representatives and Senators to support them in their official and representational duties as Members. Third, it provides the salaries and allowances available to the Speaker of the House and the Vice President, as President of the Senate, and lists the salaries of congressional officers and officials and committee staff. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855738/
The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5934/
The Mid-Session Review of the President’s Budget: Timing Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7384/
Membership of the 108th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 108th Congress. Included is information on numbers of Members, party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupations, religious affiliation, military service, female and minority Members, and foreign-born Members. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821432/
The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office
This report traces the constitutional origins and development of the office of President pro tempore of the Senate, reviews its current role and authority, and provides information on Senators who have held this office -- and the more recently-created subsidiary offices -- over the past two centuries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824744/
Hearings in the U.S. Senate: A Guide for Preparation and Procedure
This report discusses hearings in the U.S. Senate and is divided into four main sections: (1) the role of hearings in the committee process, types of hearings, and broad organizational issues, (2) a discussion of the planning process, (3) how a hearing is held, and (4) activities committees often undertake following a hearing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824537/
Executive Branch Power to Postpone Elections
Because of the continuing threat of terrorism, concerns have been raised about the potential for terrorist events to occur close to or during the voting process for the November 2004 elections. For instance, the question has been raised as to whether a sufficiently calamitous event could result in the postponement of the election, and what mechanisms are in place to deal with such an event. This report focuses on who has the constitutional authority to postpone elections, to whom such power could be delegated, and what legal limitations exist to such a postponement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5856/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2004
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 220 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795922/
Congress’s Power Under the Commerce Clause: The Impact of Recent Court Decisions
This report will first review the current Supreme Court case law with respect to the Commerce Clause. Second, it will examine the analysis used and the results of the three lower court opinions. Finally, two areas of tension that appear to exist within the Court’s jurisprudence, and the potential implications that resolution of these conflicts may have on congressional power under the Commerce Clause will be examined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7382/
Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2004
This report describes and discusses changes to the list of recipients of the Medal since the release of the committee print, Medal of Honor Recipients: 1863-1978, which lists recipients and provides the full text of the citations describing the actions that resulted in the awarding of the Medal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795878/
Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of Senate Bills
This report discusses the sponsorship and co-sponsorship of Senate bills. A Senator who introduces a bill or other measure in the Senate is called its sponsor. Senators may together submit a bill, but the first-named Senator is considered the chief sponsor; the others are considered cosponsors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824598/
The Marine Mammal Protection Act: Reauthorization Issues
This discusses a range of issues likely to be raised during any reauthorization debate, the reasons behind them, and possible proposals that could be offered to address these concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10041/
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: A Sketch
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5771/
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10056/
General Management Laws: A Compendium
This report is a companion to CRS Report RL32388, General Management Laws: Major Themes and Management Policy Options. In combination, these reports have three main objectives: (1) to identify and describe the major management laws under which the executive branch of the federal government is required to operate, including their rationale, design, and scope; (2) to assist Members of Congress and their staff in oversight of executive branch management; and (3) to help Congress when considering potential changes to the management laws themselves, as well as other legislation, including authorization statutes and appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795828/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6552/
Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5904/
Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6024/
Congressionally Chartered Nonprofit Organizations ("Title 36 Corporations"): What They Are and How Congress Treats Them
This report discusses a category of congressionally chartered nonprofit organizations that have as their purpose the promotion of patriotic, charitable, educational, and other eleemosynary activities . Title 36 of the United States Code, where such corporate organizations are listed with their charters, was re-codified by law in 1998 (EL 105-225). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7367/
Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes
This report discusses Congress' power to override presidential vetoes. The President's veto authority is among his most significant tools in legislative dealings with Congress. It is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824615/
Parliamentary Reference Sources: House of Representatives
This report discusses the availability and format of three types of parliamentary reference materials: official sources such as the House Rules and Manual and the published precedents; publications of committees and offices of the House; and documents prepared by House party and leadership organizations. It also reviews some principles of House parliamentary procedure that are important to consider when using information from parliamentary reference sources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822576/