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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6136/
Marine Mammal Protection Act: Reauthorization Issues for the 107th Congress
This report discusses the issues likely to be raised during any reauthorization debate, the reasons behind them, and possible proposals that could be offered to address these concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1407/
Line Item Vetoes in the 105th Congress, First Session: A Finding Aid
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs532/
Line Item Veto Act of 1996: Lessons from the States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs298/
The Senate's Byrd Rule Against Extraneous Matter in Reconciliation Measures
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs537/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs393/
Fiscal Year 1998 Continuing Resolutions
Congress annually considers 13 regular appropriations bills providing funding for agency operations. If any of these bills are not enacted by the start of the fiscal year (October 1), the nonessential activities of the agencies funded in the outstanding bills must cease. In those years in which all 13 bills are not enacted by the deadline, Congress adopts measures continuing funding until the regular bills are enacted. This report discusses these measures, which are referred to as continuing resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs394/
Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process
The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs546/
Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process
The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs858/
Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns: Proposals for an Automatic Continuing Resolution
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Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns: Proposals for an Automatic Continuing Resolution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1079/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2206/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3858/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3859/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1096/
Overview of the Authorization-Appropriation Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs887/
Overview of the Authorization-Appropriation Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1438/
Overview of the Authorization-Appropriations Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3861/
Congressional Budget Resolutions: Motions to Instruct Conferees
Both the House and the Senate have procedures whereby the full bodies may issue instructions to conferees on budget resolutions, usually in the form of a motion. The practices of the House and Senate regarding such motions differ markedly in key respects. First, the House resorts to such motions regularly (having considered 10 such motions in the past 12 years), while the Senate seldom uses them. Second, the House has considered only one motion per budget resolution, while the Senate considered five motions on one budget resolution. Finally, the House regards the motion to instruct conferees strictly as a prerogative of the minority party, while the Senate does not. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1439/
Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments
This report provides background information on major instances, since 1970, when Congress has utilized funding cutoffs to compel the withdrawal of United States military forces from overseas military deployments. It also highlights key efforts by Congress to utilize the War Powers Resolution, since its enactment in 1973, to compel the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from foreign deployments. In this review, legislation expressing the “sense of the Congress” regarding U.S. military deployments is not addressed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1442/
Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules
Under the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA), there are statutory limits (caps) on the level of federal discretionary spending, enforced by across-the-board spending cuts, known as a sequester. If, however, spending is designated as emergency by both the President and Congress, it will not trigger a sequester, because the caps are adjusted automatically by an amount equal to the emergency spending. Since the BEA was first enacted in 1990, both the House and Senate have supplemented its provisions with additional limitations in their respective rules concerning the use of emergency designations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1443/
Religious Persecution Abroad: Congressional Concerns and Actions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs572/
China and "Falun Gong"
The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1457/
China and "Falun Gong"
“Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2249/
China and "Falun Gong"
“Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2250/
China and "Falun Gong"
“Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3927/
A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards
This report is designed to help congressional offices obtain information about major awards given by Congress and the President. It lists details about the establishment, criteria, selection process, and presentation of each of the major presidential and congressional awards: Congressional Award, Congressional Gold Medal, Medal of Honor, Presidential Citizens Medal, and Presidential Medal of Freedom. Brief entries are provided for additional awards made by the President including two new military medals for service in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT): the GWOT Expeditionary Medal and the GWOT Service Medal. Contact information for the organization responsible for making the award and for more data about an award is provided. References to CRS products on awards are also given. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3939/
A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards
This report is designed to help congressional offices obtain information about major awards given by Congress and the President. It lists details about the establishment, criteria, selection process, and presentation of each of the major presidential and congressional awards: Congressional Award, Congressional Gold Medal, Medal of Honor, Presidential Citizens Medal, and Presidential Medal of Freedom. Brief entries are provided for additional awards made by the President including two new military medals for service in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT): the GWOT Expeditionary Medal and the GWOT Service Medal. Contact information is provided for the organization responsible for making the award and for more data about an award. References to CRS products on awards are also given. This report will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3940/
Going to Conference in the Senate
This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1112/
Going to Conference in the Senate
This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3944/
Guiding a Bill Through the Legislative Process
This report describes each stage of the legislative process that legislative assistants may find helpful as they seek to further the progress of a specific bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs99/
Investigative Oversight: An Introduction to the Law, Practice and Procedure of Congressional Inquiry
This report will provide an overview of some of the more common legal, procedural and practical issues, questions, and problems that committees have faced in the course of an investigation. Following a summary of the case law developing the scope and limitations of the power of inquiry, the essential tools of investigative oversight--subpoenas, staff interviews and depositions, grants of immunity, and the contempt power -- are described. Next, some of the special problems of investigating the executive are detailed, with particular emphasis on claims of presidential executive privilege, the problems raised by attempts to access information with respect to open or closed civil or criminal investigative matters, or to obtain information that is part of the agency deliberative process, and the effect on congressional access of statutory prohibitions on public disclosure. The discussion then focuses on various procedural and legal requirements that accompany the preparation for, and conduct of, an investigative hearing, including matters concerning jurisdiction, particular rules and requirements for the conduct of such proceedings, and the nature, applicability and scope of certain constitutional and common law testimonial privileges that may be claimed by witnesses. The case law and practice respecting the rights of minority party members during the investigative process is also reviewed. The report concludes with a description of the roles played by the offices of House General Counsel and Senate Legal Counsel in such investigations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs184/
The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction
This report discusses the complicated body of rules, precedents, and practices that governs the legislative process on the floor of the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs302/
The Committee System in the U.S. Congress
Due to the high volume and complexity of its work, Congress divides its tasks among approximately 44 committees with 154 subcommittees. The House and Senate each has its own committee systems, which are similar. Within chamber guidelines, however, each committee adopts its own rules; thus, there is considerable variation among panels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs183/
The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction
This report discusses the complicated body of rules, precedents, and practices that governs the legislative process on the floor of the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3946/
Staff Depositions in Congressional Investigations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs896/
Term Limits for Members of Congress: State Activity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs582/
Voting and Quorum Procedures in the Senate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3947/
The Legislative Process on the Senate Floor: An Introduction
This report discusses the legislative process on the senate floor; the right of extended debate that permits filibusters that can be brought to an end if the Senate invokes cloture, usually by a vote of three-fifths of all Senators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2256/
Congress' Early Organization Meetings
The purposes of these meetings are both educational and organizational. Educational sessions range from legislative procedures and staff hiring to current issues. Organizational sessions elect class officers, party leaders, and chamber officers; name committee representatives and other party officials; and select committee chairmen and often committee members. Such actions are officially ratified at the start of the new Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs303/
How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction
This report presents a brief description of the five methods used to bring proposed legislation to the House floor for consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs404/
Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction
Conference committees generally are free to conduct their negotiations as they choose, but they are to address only the matters on which the House and Senate have disagreed. Moreover, they are to propose settlements that represent compromises between the positions of the two houses. When they have completed their work, they submit a conference report and joint explanatory statement, and the House and Senate vote on accepting the report without amendments. Sometimes conference reports are accompanied by amendments that remain in disagreement. Only after the two houses have reached complete agreement on all provisions of a bill can it be sent to the President for his approval or veto. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs304/
Congressional Statistics: Bills Introduced and Laws Enacted, 1947-2003
This report is designed to fill the need for a simple tabulation of legislative workload. It provides the numbers of bills and joint resolutions introduced, and the numbers of public and private laws enacted, from the 80' Congress through the 108th Congress, first session (1947-2003). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5760/
House Administrative Reorganization: 104th Congress
This report discusses the management responsibility for financial, security, and legislative operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs305/
Casework in a Congressional Office
This report and its appendices present a general overview of congressional office procedures associated with handling casework and the assistance provided by a Member of Congress to help constituents in their dealings with federal agencies. It discusses options for assisting Members’ constituents and the role of Members and staff in providing casework services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs307/
Special Rules in the House of Representatives
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs308/
House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled?
Vacancies in Congress occur due to the death, resignation, or declination (refusal to serve) of a Senator or Representative, or as the result of expulsion or exclusion by either house. The Constitution requires that vacancies in both houses be filled by special election, but in the case of the Senate, it empowers state legislatures to provide for temporary appointments by the state governor until special elections can be scheduled. This report describes this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3948/
Salaries of Members of Congress: A List of Payable Rates and Effective Dates, 1789-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3949/
Salaries of Members of Congress: A List of Payable Rates and Effective Dates, 1789-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3950/
Salaries of Members of Congress: A List of Payable Rates and Effective Dates, 1789-2006
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6145/
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