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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2011
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Membership of the 112th Congress: A Profile

Membership of the 112th Congress: A Profile

Date: April 11, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 112th Congress (2011-2012). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Membership of the 112th Congress: A Profile

Membership of the 112th Congress: A Profile

Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 112th Congress (2011-2012). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2011

Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2011

Date: January 7, 2011
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.; Hemlin, Erin & Wilhelm, Amber H.
Description: The average service tenure of members of the Senate and House of Representatives has varied substantially since 1789. This report presents data on member tenure and a historical analysis of tenure trends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2011

Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2011

Date: January 7, 2011
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.; Hemlin, Erin & Wilhelm, Amber H.
Description: The average service tenure of members of the Senate and House of Representatives has varied substantially since 1789. This report presents data on member tenure and a historical analysis of tenure trends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage

Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage

Date: January 5, 2011
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report provides a history and overview of the MRA and examines spending patterns in the 109th Congress (2005 and 2006). The data exclude non-voting Members, including Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Members who were not in Congress for all of 2005, whether the Member left Congress prior to the end of the year or entered any time after the beginning of the session, were also excluded.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Murder or Attempted Murder of a Member of Congress and Other Federal Officials and Employees: Implications in Federal Criminal Law and Procedure of Events in Tucson

Murder or Attempted Murder of a Member of Congress and Other Federal Officials and Employees: Implications in Federal Criminal Law and Procedure of Events in Tucson

Date: January 25, 2011
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: Report describing the federal procedures and attendant legal provisions generally associated with the prosecution of cases regarding the killing and attempted killing of federal officers and employees in the performance of their official duties.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Budget Resolutions: Historical Information

Congressional Budget Resolutions: Historical Information

Date: April 4, 2011
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr. & Murray, Justin
Description: This report looks at the history and processes of budget resolution in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Lawmaking: A Perspective On Secrecy and Transparency

Congressional Lawmaking: A Perspective On Secrecy and Transparency

Date: November 30, 2011
Creator: Oleszek, Walter J.
Description: The objectives of this report are four-fold: first, to outline briefly the historical and inherent tension between secrecy and transparency in the congressional process; second, to review several common and recurring secrecy/transparency issues that emerged again with the 2011 formation of the Joint Select Deficit Reduction Committee; third, to identify various lawmaking stages typically imbued with closed door activities; and fourth, to close with several summary observations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Employees' Retirement System: Benefits and Financing

Federal Employees' Retirement System: Benefits and Financing

Date: May 20, 2011
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Description: One or both houses of Congress may formally express opinions about subjects of current national interest through freestanding simple or concurrent resolutions (called generically "sense of the House," "sense of the Senate," or "sense of the Congress" resolutions). These opinions may also be added to pending legislative measures by amendments expressing the views of one or both chambers. This report identifies the various forms these expressions may take and the procedures governing such actions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Oversight Manual

Congressional Oversight Manual

Date: May 19, 2011
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M; Oleszek, Walter J & Tatelman, Todd B.
Description: Throughout its history, Congress has engaged in oversight of the executive branch - the review, monitoring, and supervision of the implementation of public policy. The first several Congresses inaugurated such important oversight techniques as special investigations, reporting requirements, resolutions of inquiry, and use of the appropriations process to review executive activity. Contemporary developments, moreover, have increased the legislature's capacity and capabilities to check on and check the Executive. Public laws and congressional rules have measurably enhanced Congress's implied power under the Constitution to conduct oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Committee Types and Roles

Committee Types and Roles

Date: February 11, 2011
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report briefly describes the structure of the congressional committee system and the types of congressional committees, as well as congressional subcommittees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2010

Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2010

Date: February 9, 2011
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: The U.S. Constitution, in Article I, Section 6, authorizes compensation for Members of Congress "ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States." Throughout American history, Congress has relied on three different methods in adjusting salaries for Members. Standalone legislation was last used to provide increases in 1990 and 1991. It was the only method used by Congress for many years. The second method, under which annual adjustments took effect automatically unless disapproved by Congress, was established in 1975. A third method for adjusting Member pay is congressional action pursuant to recommendations from the President, based on the recommendations of the Citizens' Commission on Public Service and Compensation established in the 1989 Ethics Reform Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Date: February 9, 2011
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: Congress is required by Article I, Section 6, of the Constitution to determine its own pay. Prior to 1969, Congress did so by enacting stand-alone legislation. Stand-alone legislation may still be used to raise Member pay but two other methods-including an automatic annual adjustment procedure and a commission process-are now also available. This report contains information on the pay procedure and recent adjustments. It also contains historical information on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared to actual adjustments in Member pay; details on past legislation enacted with language prohibiting the annual pay adjustment; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pages of the United States Congress: History, Background Information, and Program Administration

Pages of the United States Congress: History, Background Information, and Program Administration

Date: August 30, 2011
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric
Description: For more than 180 years, messengers known as pages have served the United States Congress. Several incumbent and former Members of Congress as well as other prominent Americans have served as congressional pages. This report takes a look at the history and current status of Congressional pages. It also details how a student can apply to be a page, and what factors lead to a successful application.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cloture Attempts on Nominations

Cloture Attempts on Nominations

Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Palmer, Betsy
Description: This report discusses topics regarding cloture as a means to limit debate and overcome a possible filibuster.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2010

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2010

Date: March 14, 2011
Creator: Glassman, Matthew Eric
Description: Members of Congress and their staff frequently ask questions concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process for awarding Gold Medals. This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning this process, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards. It is intended to assist Members of Congress and staff in their consideration of future Gold Medal proposals, and will be updated as Gold Medals are approved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues

Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues

Date: June 8, 2011
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Maskell, Jack
Description: This report provides a brief overview of key legal issues related to recent insourcing initiatives. Recent Congresses and the Obama Administration have taken numerous actions to promote "insourcing," or the use of government personnel to perform functions that contractors previously performed on behalf of federal agencies. Among other things, the 109th through the 111th Congresses enacted several statutes requiring the development of policies and guidelines to ensure that agencies "consider" using government employees to perform functions previously performed by contractors, as well as any new function.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations

Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations

Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report gives an overview of the status of FY2011 appropriations and funding issues for the Senate, House of Representatives, and support agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2010 (74th-111th Congresses)

Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2010 (74th-111th Congresses)

Date: August 30, 2011
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report discusses how lame duck sessions occur, and the background of the lame duck sessions between 1940 and 2010. A “lame duck” session of Congress occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the term of the current Congress ends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

Date: March 3, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: The term "budget process," when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President's budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Date: July 5, 2011
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric
Description: This report describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. Finally, sample documents that could be used by congressional offices at various stages of the nomination selection process are included.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Branch: FY2012 Appropriations

Legislative Branch: FY2012 Appropriations

Date: June 15, 2011
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report gives an overview of the status of FY2012 appropriations and funding issues for the Senate, House of Representatives, and support agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Date: September 27, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress. It will be updated when there are relevant changes in the makeup of Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Date: February 24, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Shogan, Colleen J. & Navarro Smelcer, Susan
Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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