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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2010
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Date: December 27, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Roles and Duties of a Member of Congress

Roles and Duties of a Member of Congress

Date: November 4, 2010
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric
Description: This report briefly describes the roles, expectations, and duties of a Member of Congress, namely representation, legislation, and constituent service and education, as well as political and electorcal activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Travel by Congress: Legislation in the 111th Congress, Background, and Potential Policy Options

International Travel by Congress: Legislation in the 111th Congress, Background, and Potential Policy Options

Date: August 31, 2010
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric; Lisbeth, Terrence L.; Gracias, Mabel & Reynolds, Parker H.
Description: International travel by Members of Congress and their staff is an issue of longstanding interest among some members of the public, media outlets, and Members. Questions regarding the purposes and destinations of international travel by Congress frequently arise, as do questions about the ability to track the costs and benefits of such travel. This report provides information and analysis on the use of foreign currency expended in support of congressional travel to international destinations that is paid for with appropriated funds and authorized by the House or Senate; on measures related to international travel by Congress introduced in the 111th Congress, and administrative actions related to international travel taken by the House; and on potential options for Congress related to international travel by Members and staff. This report does not provide data on travel costs borne by executive agencies that support congressional travel, as those data are not publicly available.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Date: December 27, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Leaving Congress: House of Representatives and Senate Departures Data Since 198

Leaving Congress: House of Representatives and Senate Departures Data Since 198

Date: September 24, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Reynolds, Parker H. & Petersen, R. Eric
Description: Members of Congress leave the House or Senate for a variety of reasons; these may include resignation, death, or chamber action during a Congress, and retirement, electoral defeat, or pursuit of another office at the end of a Congress. This report discusses the number of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives who have left before the conclusion of a Congress since 1989.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff

Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff

Date: August 17, 2010
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Description: The Congressional Research Service frequently receives inquiries about legislative planning. Legislative and office action plans are often used by congressional offices for almost every significant project, from organizing an extensive conference in the district or state to introducing and guiding legislation. A major action plan requires a firm understanding of the project's goal, a research strategy, and a time line for completing the project. This report presents some of the factors usually considered in preparing an action plan. The information is provided in three sections. The first provides an overview which lays out summary considerations. The second raises questions to consider in preparing an outline for a project. The third details a sample action plan.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House of Representatives and Senate Staff Levels in Member, Committee, Leadership, and Other Offices, 1977-2010

House of Representatives and Senate Staff Levels in Member, Committee, Leadership, and Other Offices, 1977-2010

Date: August 10, 2010
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric; Reynolds, Parker H. & Wilhelm, Amber H.
Description: This report provides staffing levels in House and Senate Member, committee, leadership, and other offices since 1977. Data presented here are based on staff listed by chamber entity (offices of Members, committees, leaders, officers, officials, and other entities) in telephone directories published by the House and Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Date: June 28, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines the purpose and activities of CMOs and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations, and the House’s decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. Many of the steps in the guide may be of interest to Senators and their staff who are considering forming an informal Member group in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961: Authorizations and Corresponding Appropriations

Foreign Assistance Act of 1961: Authorizations and Corresponding Appropriations

Date: June 16, 2010
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Description: This report presents the authorities of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and correlates those authorities with the operative appropriations measure (division F of P.L. 111-117; 123 Stat. 3312) that funds those authorities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Committee Types and Roles

Committee Types and Roles

Date: November 10, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: This report briefly describes the structure of the congressional committee system and the types of congressional committees, as well as congressional subcommittees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications

The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications

Date: November 17, 2010
Creator: Shogan, Colleen J. & Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report explores the President's State of the Union Address, in which the President reports to Congress on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. This report also discusses the State of the Union's considerable evolution over time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Obstruction of Congress: A Brief Overview of Federal Law Relating to Interference with Congressional Activities

Obstruction of Congress: A Brief Overview of Federal Law Relating to Interference with Congressional Activities

Date: November 5, 2010
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: Obstruction of justice is the frustration of governmental purposes by violence, corruption, destruction of evidence, or deceit. It is a federal crime. In fact, federal obstruction of justice laws are legion; too many for even passing reference to all of them in a single report. This is a brief description of those that outlaw interference with congressional activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Obstruction of Congress: An Abridged Overview of Federal Criminal Laws Relating to Interference with Congressional Activities

Obstruction of Congress: An Abridged Overview of Federal Criminal Laws Relating to Interference with Congressional Activities

Date: November 5, 2010
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report briefly discusses obstruction of justice, specifically regarding Congressional activities. Obstruction of justice is defined as the frustration of governmental purposes by violence, corruption, destruction of evidence, or deceit. This is an abridged version of CRS Report RL34304, Obstruction of Congress: A Brief Overview of Federal Law Relating to Interference with Congressional Activities, by Charles Doyle, without the footnotes, quotations, or citations to authority found in the longer report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress

Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress

Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Tong, Lorraine H.
Description: Asian Pacific Americans have served in both houses of Congress representing California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Oregon, Virginia, American Samoa, and Guam. They have served in leadership positions, including committee and subcommittee chairmanships. This report presents information on Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, including party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Average Years of Service for Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, 1st - 111th Congresses

Average Years of Service for Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, 1st - 111th Congresses

Date: November 2, 2010
Creator: Glassman, Matthew Eric & Hemlin, Erin
Description: The average tenure of Members of the Senate and House of Representatives at the beginning of each Congress has varied substantially since 1789. The purpose of this report is to provide a Congress-by-Congress summary of the average years of service for Senators and Representatives for the First through the 111th Congresses. The report contains a brief summary of some of the explanations by political scientists and others for the various changes in the average years of service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aviation and Climate Change

Aviation and Climate Change

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides background on aviation emissions and the factors affecting them; it discusses the tools available to control emissions, including existing authority under the Clean Air Act and proposed economy-wide cap-and-trade legislation; and it examines international regulatory developments that may affect U.S. commercial airlines.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects

Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects

Date: January 4, 2010
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: This report explains the procedural options for resolving differences through amendments between the houses, and to discuss the procedural effects of resolving differences through this process as an alternative to conference committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Date: December 2, 2010
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: When Congress seeks to pass a law, it uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval. This report briefly describes this process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the Senate Floor

The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the Senate Floor

Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Schneider, Judy & Koempel, Michael L.
Description: This report briefly discusses procedures on the first day of a new Congress, specifically focusing on Senate proceedings.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Date: October 7, 2010
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric
Description: This report, which will be updated as warranted, describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. Finally, sample documents that could be used by congressional offices at various stages of the nomination selection process are included.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
MEMORANDUM: Preliminary assessment of efficiency initiatives announced by Secretary of Defense Gates on August 9, 2010

MEMORANDUM: Preliminary assessment of efficiency initiatives announced by Secretary of Defense Gates on August 9, 2010

Date: August 12, 2010
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: On August 9, 2010, Secretary of Defense Gates announced a number of efficiency initiatives intended to contribute to a Defense Department effort to achieve about $100 billion of savings over the next five years. The Defense Department's intent is not to reduce the defense "top line" budget, but, rather, to apply any savings to finance currently planned programs. This report contains an order-of-magnitude analysis of amounts of money currently spent in each of the major areas Secretary Gates identified for savings.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2010

Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2010

Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: The U.S. Constitution, in Article I, Section 6, authorizes compensation for Members of Congress "ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States." Throughout American history, Congress has relied on three different methods in adjusting salaries for Members. Standalone legislation was last used to provide increases in 1990 and 1991. It was the only method used by Congress for many years. The second method, under which annual adjustments took effect automatically unless disapproved by Congress, was established in 1975. A third method for adjusting Member pay is congressional action pursuant to recommendations from the President, based on the recommendations of the Citizens' Commission on Public Service and Compensation established in the 1989 Ethics Reform Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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