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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462499/
House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled?
Vacancies in Congress occur due to the death, resignation, or declination (refusal to serve) of a Senator or Representative, or as the result of expulsion or exclusion by either house. The Constitution requires that vacancies in both houses be filled by special election, but in the case of the Senate, it empowers state legislatures to provide for temporary appointments by the state governor until special elections can be scheduled. This report describes this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3948/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2009
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 260 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505441/
Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-2007
This report provides data and analysis concerning legislative branch staffing levels since 1954. Legislative branch staff include congressional staff, who work in the House or Senate, and legislative agency staff, who work in a legislative branch agency. At present, there is no legislation pending before Congress to change existing staff arrangements in Congress or legislative branch agencies. As policies and issues before Congress continue to proliferate in volume and complexity, new proposals for change in staffing levels or changes in the balance between congressional staff and legislative agency staff may emerge. This report, which will be updated annually, is one of several CRS products focusing on various aspects of congressional operations and administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83910/
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups
This report contains a compilation of commissions and boards that demonstrates the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of Members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700875/
Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs
This report provides background information on the types of water supply and wastewater treatment projects traditionally funded by the federal government and the several existing programs to assist communities with water supply and wastewater recycling and treatment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795863/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2004
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 220 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795922/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2005
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 229 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795911/
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments
This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462118/
Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments
This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463361/
Pages of the United States Congress: History, Background Information, and Proposals for Change
This report provides a brief history of the congressional page programs, including their duties, and background information about House and Senate pages. It also has an overview of changes and reforms from 1981-2001, and proposed changes, reforms, and various issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743561/
Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Departing and Former Senators
This report provides information on selected privileges and courtesies (with the exception of federal health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits) extended to departing and former Senators. Some are derived from law and Senate Rules, but most are courtesies that have been extended as a matter of custom. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824506/
Guide to Individuals Seated on the Senate Dais
This report briefly discusses where various individuals are seated in the Senate chamber. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824457/
The Federal Minimum Wage and American Samoa
This report discusses the federal minimum wage in American Samoa. Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the minimum wage for the islands is fixed by a commission established by the Secretary of Labor. The minimum wage for fish processing is currently $3.26 an hour. Were Congress to extend the general (federal) minimum wage to American Samoa (and raise it to $7.25 an hour, as is currently proposed), the fish processing industry might absorb the increase, change the way it processes tuna, or migrate to other low-wage countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc819211/
The Federal Minimum Wage and American Samoa
This report discusses the federal minimum wage in American Samoa. Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the minimum wage for the islands is fixed by a commission established by the Secretary of Labor. The minimum wage for fish processing is currently $3.26 an hour. Were Congress to extend the general (federal) minimum wage to American Samoa (and raise it to $7.25 an hour, as is currently proposed), the fish processing industry might absorb the increase, change the way it processes tuna, or migrate to other low-wage countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822399/
Duration of Continuing Resolutions in Recent Years
This report provides information on congressional practices with respect to the duration of continuing resolutions, including the use of full-year measures, and focuses particularly on the period covering FY1998-FY2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463273/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
In the Summer of 2005, Congress focused on several Clean Air Act Issues before the August recess. Although the Congressional agenda stated that attention would be given to the needed amendments of the Clear Skies/Multi-Pollutant Legislation, this progress was stalled, and the committee failed to approve the bill due to a tied vote. This otherwise stagnated debate was given some attention due to the discussions over mercury regulations as they apply to power plants. The outcome of the decision concerning these regulations has stirred controversy in at least fifteen states. Perhaps the most debated issue that Congress covered concerned MTBE and Ethanol, which have been used to meet the Clean Air Act requirements that reformulated gasoline (RFG), sold in the nation’s worst ozone nonattainment areas, contain at least 2% oxygen, to improve combustion. Air quality standard deadlines and provisions, specifically in the most severe ozone nonattainment areas, were discussed by Congress. Discussions over the Clean Air Act also sparked discussions over environmental regulations concerning related issues, including the Conformity of Transportation Plans and SIPs, and Hurricane Katrina. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85367/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85366/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
In the Summer of 2005, Congress focused on several Clean Air Act Issues before the August recess. Although the Congressional agenda stated that attention would be given to the needed amendments of the Clear Skies/Multi-Pollutant Legislation, this progress was stalled, and the committee failed to approve the bill due to a tied vote. This otherwise stagnated debate was given some attention due to the discussions over mercury regulations as they apply to power plants. The outcome of the decision concerning these regulations has stirred controvery in at least fifteen states. Perhaps the most debated issue that Congress covered concerned MTBE and Ethanol, which have been used to meet the Clean Air Act requiremnets that reformulated gasoline(RFG), sold in the nation’s worst ozone nonattainment areas, contain at least 2% oxygen, to improve combustion. Air quality standard deadlines and provisions, specifically in the most severe ozone nonattainment areas, were discussed by Congress. Dsicussions over the Clean Air Act also sparked discussions over environmental regulations concerning related issues, including the Conformity of Transportation Plans and SIPs, and Hurricane Katrina. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83872/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83871/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83874/
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress
The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83873/
Salaries of Members of Congress: A List of Payable Rates and Effective Dates, 1789-2008
This report summarizes by what measures the Constitution requires Congress to determine its own pay, the annual payment adjustment procedure, changes in pay over time since 1789, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29501/
The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor
This report focuses on the floor activities of the House during its first formal session in a new Congress, and serves as a guide for participating in or watching these proceedings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4000/
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: An Update and Assessment of The Congressional Review Act after a Decade
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the structure of the review scheme was expected to operate and describes how it has in fact been utilized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700524/
Appropriations for FY2003: Legislative Branch
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4003/
The House Apportionment Formula in Theory and Practice
This report has four major purposes: to summarize the constitutional and statutory requirements governing apportionment; to explain how the current apportionment formula works in theory and in practice; to summarize recent challenges to it on grounds of unfairness; and to explain the reasoning underlying the choice of the equal proportions method over its chief alternative, major fractions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1119/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
Members of Congress often get requests from constituents for information and help in obtaining funds for projects. Many state and local governments, nonprofit social service and community action organizations, private research groups, small businesses, and individuals approach congressional offices to find out about funding, both from the federal government and from the private sector. The success rate in obtaining federal assistance is not high, given the competition for federal funds. A grants staff’s effectiveness often depends on both an understanding of the grants process and on the relations it establishes with agency and other contacts. The following report does not constitute a blueprint for every office involved in grants and projects activity, nor does it present in-depth information about all aspects of staff activity in this area. The discussion is aimed at describing some basics about the grants process and some of the approaches and techniques used by congressional offices in dealing with this type of constituent service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2258/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
Members of Congress often get requests from constituents for information and help in obtaining funds for projects. Many state and local governments, nonprofit social service and community action organizations, private research groups, small businesses, and individuals approach congressional offices to find out about funding, both from the federal government and from the private sector. The success rate in obtaining federal assistance is not high, given the competition for federal funds. A grants staff’s effectiveness often depends on both an understanding of the grants process and on the relations it establishes with agency and other contacts. The following report does not constitute a blueprint for every office involved in grants and projects activity, nor does it present in-depth information about all aspects of staff activity in this area. The discussion is aimed at describing some basics about the grants process and some of the approaches and techniques used by congressional offices in dealing with this type of constituent service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2257/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
Members of Congress often get requests from constituents for information and help in obtaining funds for projects. Many state and local governments, nonprofit social service and community action organizations, private research groups, small businesses, and individuals approach congressional offices to find out about funding, both from the federal government and from the private sector. The success rate in obtaining federal assistance is not high, given the competition for federal funds. A grants staff’s effectiveness often depends on both an understanding of the grants process and on the relations it establishes with agency and other contacts. The following report does not constitute a blueprint for every office involved in grants and projects activity, nor does it present in-depth information about all aspects of staff activity in this area. The discussion is aimed at describing some basics about the grants process and some of the approaches and techniques used by congressional offices in dealing with this type of constituent service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3951/
House and Senate Chaplains
This report discusses the two chaplains, one in the House, the other in the Senate, who are the official clergy of Congress. At the beginning of each Congress, the House chaplain is elected for a 2-year term. The Senate chaplain does not have to be reelected at the beginning of a new Congress. There have been 61 Senate chaplains and 59 House chaplains. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1513/
Annual Appropriations Acts: Consideration During Lame-Duck Sessions
This report provides information on the consideration of annual appropriations acts in connection with lame-duck sessions occurring between 1994 and 2006 as background for the possibility of such a session during 2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743432/
House Sergeant at Arms: Fact Sheet on Legislative and Administrative Duties
This report discusses the chief law enforcement officer of the House, the Sergeant at Arms, responsible for security in the House wing of the Capitol, the House office buildings, and on adjacent grounds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2270/
How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction
This report presents a brief description of the five methods used to bring proposed legislation to the House floor for consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6159/
The House's Corrections Calendar
This report discusses the establishment of the “Corrections Day”, a concept credited to Michigan Governor John Englerwhich, which is a procedure for repealing “the dumbest things the federal government is currently doing and just abolish them.” digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1465/
Bush Administration Policy Regarding Congressionally Originated Earmarks: An Overview
This report focuses on Bush Administration policy regarding earmarks originated by Congress and related issues. Specific definitions for the term earmark (and related terms, like congressional earmark, presidential earmark, and others) vary considerably and are controversial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795680/
Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them
This report provides a brief overview of federal statutes and where to find them, both in print and on the Internet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795379/
Guide to Individuals Seated on the Senate Dais
This report is a brief summary of House and Senate procedures for reaching agreement on legislation. It discusses the provisions of House Rule XXII and Senate Rule XXVIII as well as other applicable rules, precedents, and practices. The report focuses on the most common and customary procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3966/
The Legislative Process on the Senate Floor: An Introduction
This report discusses the legislative process on the senate floor; the right of extended debate that permits filibusters that can be brought to an end if the Senate invokes cloture, usually by a vote of three-fifths of all Senators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2256/
Senate Rule XIV Procedures for Placing Measures Directly on the Senate Calendar
This report describes the Senate Rule XIV, para. 2, which requires that bills and resolutions have three readings before passage, and that they be read twice before being referred to committee. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7602/
Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2003
This report discusses changes in the list of recipients of the Medal of Honor (MoH). This report lists those changes by military action and provides the full text of their official citations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3994/
Medal of Honor: History and Issues
This report discusses the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) for inspecting most meat, poultry, and processed egg products for safety, wholesomeness, and proper labeling. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8940/
Senate Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments
This report briefly examines Senate Rule XXV and party conference rules that address committee assignments. It includes a table for A, B, and C committees with an overview of limitations and procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824780/
The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office
This report traces the constitutional origins and development of the office of President pro tempore of the Senate, reviews its current role and authority, and provides information on Senators who have held this office -- and the more recently-created subsidiary offices -- over the past two centuries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824744/
Membership of the 109th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 109th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, female and minority Members, foreign-born Members, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824599/
Budget Resolution Enforcement
This report briefly discusses the annual budget resolution, which sets forth Congress's budget plan for a period of at least five fiscal years. It includes total levels of new budget authority, outlays, revenues, the deficit, and the public debt for each of the fiscal years covered. Once a budget resolution is adopted, Congress may enforce its provisions, through points of order, at several levels: the total levels of spending and revenues, the level of resources allocated to committees, and the level of resources allocated to the appropriations subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824536/
Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress
This report discusses a number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture have been or are being addressed by the 109th Congress. The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-171), enacted in February 2006, included a net reduction in spending on U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) mandatory programs of $2.7 billion over five years, and the reauthorization of a dairy income support program. Other issues of importance to agriculture during the second session of the 109th Congress include the consideration of emergency farm disaster assistance; multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; concerns about agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease and avian flu); high energy costs; environmental issues; agricultural marketing matters; the reauthorization of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission; and farm labor issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822378/
Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2008
This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process for awarding Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards. It is intended to assist Members of Congress and staff in their consideration of future Gold Medal proposals, and will be updated as Gold Medals are approved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462642/
Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress
Asian Pacific Americans have served in both houses of Congress representing California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Oregon, Virginia, American Samoa, and Guam. They have served in leadership positions, including committee and subcommittee chairmanships. This report presents information on Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, including party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26115/
House Vacancies: Proposed Constitutional Amendments for Filling Them Due to National Emergencies
This report discusses the proposed constitutional amendments for filling House vacancies if a significant number ofMembers were unable to serve due to a national emergency in case of nuclear, biological, chemical attack. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4025/
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