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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Journalists' Privilege: Overview of the Law and Legislation in Recent Congresses
This report gives an overview of the law regarding journalistic privilege. Included are the responses of the 110th and 111th Congresses regarding the law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103215/
Secret Sessions of the House and Senate: Authority, Confidentiality, and Frequency
Secret, or closed, sessions of the House and Senate exclude the press and the public. They may be held for matters deemed to require confidentiality and secrecy-such as national security, sensitive communications received from the President, and Senate deliberations during impeachment trials. Although Members usually seek advance agreement for going into secret session, any Member of Congress may request a secret session without notice. When the House or Senate goes into secret session, its chamber and galleries are cleared of everyone except Members and officers and employees specified in the rules or designated by the presiding officer as essential to the session. After the chamber is cleared, its doors are closed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84006/
Intelligence Identities Protection Act
This report summarizes the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, P.L. 97-200, enacted by Congress in 1982 to address the unauthorized disclosure of information that exposes covert U.S. intelligence agents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103236/
The U.S. Postal Service's Use of Contractors to Deliver Mail: Background and Recent Developments
Currently, the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) is collectively bargaining with the National Association of Letter Carriers (NALC) and National Rural Letter Carriers Association (NRLCA). One issue that may or may not be settled is the Postal Service's use of non-USPS employees (i.e., contractors) to deliver mail. If the parties cannot come to a satisfactory arrangement, Congress may be approached to consider the matter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87234/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6030/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
This report provides an overview of the major exceptions to the First Amendment - of the ways that the Supreme Court has interpreted the guarantee of freedom of speech and press to provide no protection or only limited protection for some types of speech. For example, the Court has decided that the First Amendment provides no protection to obscenity, child pornography, or speech that constitutes "advocacy of the use of force or of law violation ... where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29495/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6029/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5297/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5298/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8579/
The Siting of Wireless Communications Facilities: An Overview of Federal, State, and Local Law
The siting of wireless communications facilities has been a topic of controversy in communities all over the United States. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 governs federal, state, and local regulation of the siting of communications towers by placing certain limitations on local zoning authority without totally preempting state and local law. This report provides an overview of the federal, state, and local laws governing the siting of wireless communications facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10561/
Tobacco Marketing and Advertising Restrictions in S. 1415, 105th Congress: First Amendment Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs512/
Tobacco Marketing and Advertising Restrictions in S. 1648, 105th Congress: First Amendment Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs509/
Tobacco Advertising: The Constitutionality of Limiting its Tax Deductibility
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs508/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2242/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2241/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1453/
Tobacco Advertising: Whether the FDA's Restrictions Violate Freedom of Speech
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs402/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5752/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3917/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3916/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3915/
English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview
This report provides background on contemporary efforts to declare English the official language, a review of selected issues raised by official English proposals in Congress, and a summary of arguments that have been advanced in favor of and in opposition to such proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs403/
Speech Material -- Fourth of July
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9233/
"Sensitive but Unclassified" Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information
This report traces the evolution of "sensitive but unclassified" or SBU-related controls; summarizes actions taken to protect certain types of scientific and technical information; describes critiques of some control policies; and summarizes proposals and actions, including congressional, executive and other initiatives, to clarify these issues and develop policies that serve various stakeholders. It also raises issues that may warrant further attention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8704/
Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7180/
Protection of Security-Related Information
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9566/
Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"
It has been proposed that Congress prohibit the sale or rental to minors of video games that are rated “M” (mature) or “AO” (adults-only) by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board. This board is a non-governmental entity established by the Interactive Digital Software Association, and its ratings currently have no legal effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9144/
The "Son of Sam" Case: Legislative Implications
In Simon & Schuster, Inc. v. Members of the new York State Crime Victims Board, the U.S. Supreme Court held that New York State's "Son of Sam" law was inconsistent with the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech and press. This report examines the Supreme Court decision and then considers whether its rationale renders the federal law unconstitutional. Concluding that it likely does, the report considers whether it would be possible to enact a constitutional Son-of-Sam statute. Finally, the report takes note of some state Son-of-Sam statutes that have been enacted since the Supreme Court decision. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26026/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8058/
Pension Issues Cloud Postal Reform Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7538/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6828/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6827/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6543/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6542/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6621/
Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6292/
Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6291/
Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6293/
"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6031/
"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland SecurityAct (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5301/
"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy
This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5300/
Sending Mail to Members of the Armed Forces at Reduced or Free Postage: An Overview
This report looks the background, and current methods of, sending mail to troops serving overseas via subsidized postage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227644/
U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology
Report regarding the role of the United States and other foreign companies in facilitating Internet censorship by repressive regimes overseas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227660/
Information Sharing for Homeland Security: A Brief Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6192/
Information Sharing for Homeland Security: A Brief Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5829/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6228/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4632/
Farm Product "Check-Off" Programs: A Constitutional Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9116/
Obscenity: A Legal Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9191/