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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The 2009 U.N. Durban Review Conference: Follow-Up to the 2001 U.N. World Conference Against Racism
This report provides information on the 2001 World Conference Against Racism and the circumstances of U.S. withdrawal. It discusses preparations for the Durban Review Conference, including U.S. policy and reaction from other governments. It highlights possible issues for the 111th Congress, including the Review Conference preparatory process, U.S. funding of the Conference, and the political and diplomatic impact of U.S. engagement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26291/
Advertising by the Federal Government: An Overview
A look at government agencies spending on advertising. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83955/
Advertising by the Federal Government: An Overview
This report looks at what government agencies are spending on advertising, including the difficulties of estimating advertising expenditures and the restrictions on government advertising. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103147/
Advertising by the Federal Government: An Overview
This report discusses government advertising that can be controversial if it conflicts with citizens' views about the proper role of government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332942/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6030/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6029/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5297/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5298/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8579/
Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries
This report discusses the changing of ZIP Code system and the implications of such an action. The process places responsibility on district managers, rather than local postmasters, to review requests for boundary adjustment, to evaluate costs and benefits of alternative solutions to identified problems, and to provide a decision within 60 days. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9447/
Communications Act Revisions: Selected Issues for Consideration
This report provides an overview of selected topics which the 109th Congress may address in its examination of telecommunications issues. The issues included in this report cover: broadband Internet regulation and access; broadcast indecency; digital television transition; Federal Communications Commission structure and reform; intercarrier compensation; media ownership rules; municipal deployment of broadband; public safety communications, the “savings clause” and monopoly issues; spectrum auctions; and universal service fund reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8121/
Communications Act Revisions: Selected Issues for Consideration
This report provides an overview of selected topics which the 109th Congress may address in its examination of telecommunications issues. The issues included in this report cover: broadband Internet regulation and access; broadcast indecency; digital television transition; Federal Communications Commission structure and reform; intercarrier compensation; media ownership rules; municipal deployment of broadband; public safety communications, the “savings clause” and monopoly issues; spectrum auctions; and universal service fund reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7681/
Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"
It has been proposed that Congress prohibit the sale or rental to minors of video games that are rated “M” (mature) or “AO” (adults-only) by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board. This board is a non-governmental entity established by the Interactive Digital Software Association, and its ratings currently have no legal effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9144/
English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview
This report provides background on contemporary efforts to declare English the official language, a review of selected issues raised by official English proposals in Congress, and a summary of arguments that have been advanced in favor of and in opposition to such proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs403/
Farm Product "Check-Off" Programs: A Constitutional Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9116/
FCC Media Ownership Rules: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3943/
FCC Media Ownership Rules: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3942/
Federal Advertising Law: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs580/
Federal Services for Constituents Available in Foreign Languages: Selected Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4008/
Federal Services for Constituents Available in Spanish: Selected Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4009/
Free Mail for Troops Overseas
Members of the armed forces on duty in designated combat areas can send personal correspondence, free of postage, to addresses in the United States. There has never been a comparable provision of free postage for letters or packages sent from family members in the United States to loved ones in wartime service overseas. Two bills (H.R. 923 and H.R. 2874) have been introduced that would allow family members and, in the case of H.R. 2874, certain charities to send letters and packages to servicemen and women in combat zones free of postage. H.R. 923 in amended form as a bill that would allow service members overseas to send vouchers to family or loved ones that would be redeemable for the postage expenses of one letter of 15-pound package per month is included in the FY2007 Defense Authorization Act, which is now awaiting action in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10220/
Free Mail for Troops Overseas
Members of the armed forces on duty in designated combat areas can send personal correspondence, free of postage, to addresses in the United States. There has never been a comparable provision of free postage of letters or packages sent from family members in the United States to loved ones in wartime service overseas. Two bills (H.R. 923 and H.R. 2874) have been introduced that would allow family members and, in the case o H.R. 2874, certain charities to send letters and packages to service men and women in combat zones free of postage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10221/
Free Mail for Troops Overseas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9953/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
This report provides an overview of the major exceptions to the First Amendment - of the ways that the Supreme Court has interpreted the guarantee of freedom of speech and press to provide no protection or only limited protection for some types of speech. For example, the Court has decided that the First Amendment provides no protection to obscenity, child pornography, or speech that constitutes "advocacy of the use of force or of law violation ... where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29495/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2242/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2241/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1453/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5752/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3917/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3916/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3915/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6543/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6542/
Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6621/
Going to Conference in the Senate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3944/
Going to Conference in the Senate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1112/
Information Sharing for Homeland Security: A Brief Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6192/
Information Sharing for Homeland Security: A Brief Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5829/
Intelligence Identities Protection Act
This report summarizes the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, P.L. 97-200, enacted by Congress in 1982 to address the unauthorized disclosure of information that exposes covert U.S. intelligence agents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103236/
The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) and the Army's Future Combat System (FCS): Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7941/
Journalists' Privilege: Overview of the Law and Legislation in Recent Congresses
This report gives an overview of the law regarding journalistic privilege. Included are the responses of the 110th and 111th Congresses regarding the law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103215/
Journalists' Privilege to Withhold Information in Judicial and Other Proceedings: State Shield Statutes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6147/
Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3986/
Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs919/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8058/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6828/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6827/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6228/
Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4632/
Naming Post Offices Through Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3945/
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