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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Congressional Redistricting and the Voting Rights Act: A Legal Overview

Congressional Redistricting and the Voting Rights Act: A Legal Overview

Date: April 2, 2013
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: This report provides a legal overview of two key provisions of the Voting Rights Act (VRA) affecting congressional redistricting — Sections 2 and 5 — and selected accompanying Supreme Court case law. It examines a pending Supreme Court case, Shelby County, Alabama v. Holder, challenging the constitutionality of Section 5. It also provides a summary of selected legislation in the 112th and 113th Congresses that would establish additional requirements and standards for congressional redistricting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

Date: April 1, 2013
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides a brief history of the United nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child and outlines its objectives and structure, including the role and responsibilities of the treaty's monitoring body, the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It examines U.S. policy toward CRC, including the positions of past and current Administrations and congressional perspectives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Issues for Congress

The Repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Issues for Congress

Date: December 21, 2012
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Description: On December 22, 2010, President Obama signed P.L. 111-321 into law. It called for the repeal of the existing law (Title 10, United States Code, §654) barring open homosexuality in the military by prescribing a series of steps that must take place before repeal occurs. One step was fulfilled on July 22, 2011, when the President signed the certification of the process ending the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy, which was repealed on September 20, 2011. However, in repealing the law and the so-called "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy, a number of issues have been raised, but were not addressed by P.L. 111-321. This report considers issues that Congress may wish to consider regarding matters arising as a result of the repeal of §654.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Photo ID Requirements for Voting: Background and Legal Issues

Photo ID Requirements for Voting: Background and Legal Issues

Date: November 2, 2012
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.; Fischer, Eric A. & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Report concerning the controversy surrounding some states' requirements that voters provide photographic identification before casting a ballot.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status

Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status

Date: August 27, 2012
Creator: Hatch, Garrett
Description: This report examines initial responses to the 9/11 Commission's call for a board to oversee adherence to presidential guidelines on information sharing that safeguard the privacy of individuals about whom information is shared, and the implementation of this board.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Date: July 2, 2012
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations (U.N.) Convention on the Rights of the Child's (CRC's) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the CRC, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the CRC's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy. In addition, the report addresses the effectiveness of CRC in protecting the rights of children internationally and its potential use as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Employment: A Legal Analysis of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Employment: A Legal Analysis of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)

Date: June 8, 2012
Creator: Jody Feder & Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report discusses issues surrounding the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would prohibit discrimination based on an individual's actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity by public and private employers in hiring, discharge, compensation, and other terms and conditions of employment. The stated purpose of the legislation is "to address the history and widespread pattern of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity by private sector employers and local, State, and Federal Government employers," as well as to provide effective remedies for such discrimination. Patterned on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the act would be enforced by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Racial Profiling: Legal and Constitutional Issues

Racial Profiling: Legal and Constitutional Issues

Date: April 16, 2012
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: Racial profiling is the practice of targeting individuals for police or security detention based on their race or ethnicity in the belief that certain minority groups are more likely to engage in unlawful behavior. Examples of racial profiling by law enforcement agencies suggest that minorities are disproportionately the subject of security-related practices. The issue has periodically attracted congressional interest and several courts have considered the constitutional ramifications of the practice as an "unreasonable search and seizure" under the Fourth Amendment and, more recently, as a denial of the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection guarantee. A variety of federal and state statutes provide potential relief to individuals who claim that their rights are violated by race-based law enforcement practices and policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Issues for Congress

The Repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Issues for Congress

Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Description: On December 22, 2010, President Obama signed into law legislation calling for the repeal of the existing law barring open homosexuality in the military by prescribing a series of steps that must take place before repeal occurs. One step was fulfilled on July 22, 2011, when the President signed the certification of the process ending the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy, which was repealed on September 20, 2011. This report considers issues that Congress may wish to consider as the repeal process proceeds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer

Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer

Date: March 26, 2012
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: Under federal law, an array of civil rights statutes are available to protect individuals from discrimination. This report provides a brief summary of selected federal civil rights statutes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department