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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3889/
Juvenile Delinquents and Federal Criminal Law: The Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act and Related Matters
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9296/
Child Welfare Financing: An Issue Overview
The purpose of this report is to describe the federal interest in child welfare (as expressed by Congress); describe the current level and structure of federal dedicated child welfare financing and examine trends in the appropriation and spending of this money; and to review the extent to which states rely on non-dedicated federal funds for child welfare purposes. Finally, the report discusses the future federal commitment to child welfare financing, along with the concepts of flexibility and accountability, as these relate both to current law and to recent proposals to alter federal child welfare financing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7687/
Child Welfare: State Performance on Child and Family Services Reviews
This report begins with a short history of the legislation and other factors that led to the creation of the current CFSR and then briefly describes how a CFSR is conducted and what “substantial conformity” with federal child welfare policy means in the context of this review. Much has been made of the fact that no state was found to be in substantial conformity with all aspects of federal policy reviewed during the initial (FY2001-FY2004) round of the CFSRs. This report seeks to better understand that fact by looking closely at state performance on each of the performance indicators that determined compliance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7688/
Child Welfare: Foster Care and Adoption Assistance Provisions in the Budget Reconciliation Bills
This report provides background information on provisions relevant to federal funding for child welfare purposes and other child welfare related provisions included in S. 1932 and H.R. 4241, and will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7935/
Child Welfare Waiver Demonstrations
This report provides background information on the child welfare waivers and a description of the progress states have made on these demonstration projects. Waiver projects must be cost neutral to the federal government; may be conducted for no longer than 5 years (though HHS may grant an extension of up to 5 years); and must include an evaluation comparing the existing state program to the waiver project. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3911/
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3891/
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3890/
Homelessness: Targeted Federal Programs and Recent Legislation
This report describes the federal programs that are targeted to assist those who are homeless; includes recent funding levels; discusses current issues, including homelessness after the economic downturn and federal efforts to end homelessness; and provides information on recent legislation. Among active legislation are bills to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, which includes transitional housing for those who are homeless as a result of domestic violence and legislation that would, among other things, reauthorize the Education for Homeless Children and Youth program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86638/
Homelessness: Targeted Federal Programs and Recent Legislation
This report describes existing federal programs that provide targeted assistance to homeless individuals and families, and discusses federal efforts to end homelessness. It also contains tables that outline funding levels for various related programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282282/
CRS Issue Statement on Child Well-Being
The nation's future depends in large part on its children's ability to develop into contributing adult members of society. For that reason, and for what many would consider a society's moral responsibility to care for the young and vulnerable, Congress and the nation take an interest in promoting children's well-being. It can be argued that children are the nation's most valuable resource, constituting the next generation of workers, taxpayers, and parents. Their well-being and ability to develop into productive adults in an increasingly competitive global economy is influenced by a variety of factors, and public policies can affect these factors to varying degrees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83881/
Unaccompanied Alien Children: Potential Factors Contributing to Recent Immigration
This report begins by describing the recent surge in unaccompanied child apprehensions. It discusses several factors widely associated with out-migration from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. The report then discusses three broad factors that may be attracting migrants to the United States: economic and educational opportunity, family reunification, and U.S. immigration policies. It concludes with caveats on the attribution of causes to this situation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332868/
Special Immigrant Juveniles: In Brief
This report provides a brief explanation of the statutory basis of special immigrant juvenile (SIJ) status and how it has evolved. It also presents statistics on the number of children who have applied for and received SIJ status since FY2005. The report concludes with a discussion of the applicability of SIJ status for unaccompanied alien children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462914/
Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics
This report discusses the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program that was enacted in 1975 as a federal-state program (Title IV-D of the Social Security Act) to help strengthen families by securing financial support for children from their noncustodial parent on a consistent and continuing basis and by helping some families to remain self-sufficient and off public assistance by providing the requisite CSE services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462537/
Child Welfare and Child Support: The Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (P.L. 113-183)
This report begins with an overview and topical summary of the provisions of the Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (H.R. 4980), which seeks to ensure that child welfare agencies are responsive to particular issues for children and youth in foster care or those who otherwise have contact with the child welfare system. The report follows this with a review of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) cost estimate for H.R. 4980 and the legislative origins of the enacted bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491200/
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Size and Characteristics of the Cash Assistance Caseload
This report examines the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance caseload, focusing on how the composition and characteristics of families receiving assistance have changed over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463086/
International Parental Child Abductions
This report discusses the applicability of the Hague Convention and current U.S. laws, both civil and criminal, which seek to address the quandary of children abducted by parents to foreign nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463074/
Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues
This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs, including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. Current federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education is debated are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463059/
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate
This report discusses the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities; its purpose is to promote, protect, and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501714/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9446/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9665/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9667/
Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9075/
The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Recent History and Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9960/
The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Recent History and Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9984/
Reaching Low-Income, Uninsured Children: Are Medicaid and SCHIP Doing the Job?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1426/
Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1452/
Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States: Overview and Issues for Congress
Report concerning Congressional attention on the domestic sex trafficking of children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227723/
Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding
Federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities — including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) — reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant/postpartum women. In FY2004, anticipated spending on these programs is $16.6 billion, and the FY2004 appropriations law (P.L. 108-199) supports this spending level (although with new appropriations of a lesser amount, some $16 billion). The Administration’s FY2005 revised budget request envisions spending a total of $17.15 billion, supported by new appropriations of $16.47 billion. The House FY2005 appropriations bill (H.R. 4766) would support spending of $16.97 billion with new appropriations of $16.29 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8527/
Handicapped Infants: The Final Section 504 Regulation and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9045/
Advertising of Alcoholic Beverages: Should a Radio and TV Ban be Imposed?
This issue brief discusses the ongoing debate centered around television and radio advertising of alcoholic beverages, especially as it relates to the possible negative influence on the drinking habits of minors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9049/
Restrictions on Minors' Access to Material on the Internet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs801/
Juvenile Justice Act Reauthorization: The Current Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs569/
The State Children's Health Insurance Program: Guidance on Frequently Asked Questions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs567/
Child Nutrition Issues in the 105th Congress
This report covers proposed and enacted legislative initiatives to change child nutrition programs (including the WIC program) during 1997 and 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs533/
Eliminating International Child Labor: U.S. and International Initiatives
In November 1999, during the World Trade Organization (WTO) conference in Seattle, hundreds of protestors took to the street to protest a number of issues, including the international use of child labor, which has become increasingly important in discussions on international trade, human rights and international assistance. While awareness of the issue has increased, the ability to address the complex problem has been complicated by a number of related factors including rising poverty, surging HIV/AIDS infection rates, and a lack of relevant education. This report will outline the scope of the international child labor problem, explain the difficulties in eliminating it, describe U.S. and international child labor programs, and present some issues Congress may consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9080/
Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2236/
Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2235/
Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"
It has been proposed that Congress prohibit the sale or rental to minors of video games that are rated “M” (mature) or “AO” (adults-only) by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board. This board is a non-governmental entity established by the Interactive Digital Software Association, and its ratings currently have no legal effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9144/
Teenage Sexual Activity and Childbearing: An Analysis of the Relationships of Behavior to Family and Personal Background
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9245/
Parental Notification for Family Planning Services: Title X Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9174/
Parental Leave: Legislation in the 100th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9195/
Child Labor in West African Cocoa Production: Issues and U.S. Policy
This report outlines how and where cocoa is produced, discusses the use of abusive child labor in the industry, efforts by Congress to counter abusive child labor — including the Harkin-Engel Protocol, and initiatives by affected governments and international organizations to address the problem. This report also provides possible policy options that might undertaken to stop the use of child labor in cocoa production. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9107/
Article Packet: Background Information on Seatbelts in School Buses
This notice from the Department of Transportation, denies a petition for rule-making filed by Physicians for Automotive Safety (PAS), asking this agency to mandate the installation of seat belts on all school buses. NHTSA believes that the currently mandated occupant protections in school buses provide an adequate level of safety protection, and that seat belts would not raise the level of protection for the occupants unless States and local jurisdictions were willing to take steps to ensure that the seat belts were actually used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9052/
Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding
About a dozen federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities – including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) – reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant and postpartum women. Total FY2002 spending on these efforts was $15.1 billion. FY2003 spending is projected at an estimated $15.9 billion under the Agriculture Department appropriations portion (Division A) of the FY2003 Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (P.L. 108-7; H.Rept. 108-10; enacted February 20,2003). And the Administration anticipates spending $16.3 billion under its FY2004 budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3845/
Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding
About a dozen federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities – including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) – reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant and postpartum women. Total FY2002 spending on these efforts was $15.1 billion. FY2003 spending is projected at an estimated $15.9 billion under the Agriculture Department appropriations portion (Division A) of the FY2003 Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (P.L. 108-7; H.Rept. 108-10; enacted February 20,2003). And the Administration anticipates spending $16.3 billion under its FY2004 budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3847/
Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding
About a dozen federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities – including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) – reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant and postpartum women. Total FY2002 spending on these efforts was $15.1 billion. FY2003 spending is projected at an estimated $15.9 billion under the Agriculture Department appropriations portion (Division A) of the FY2003 Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (P.L. 108-7; H.Rept. 108-10; enacted February 20,2003). And the Administration anticipates spending $16.3 billion under its FY2004 budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3846/
Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions
This is one report in the series of reports that discus the Budget Reconciliation- Medicaid, Medicare, and SCHIP Provisions. These are some of the issues discussed in this report: Medicaid Outpatient Prescription Drugs, Long-Term Care under Medicaid, Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, State Financing and Medicaid, Improving the Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, Medicare Advantage, and other Medicare Provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7917/
Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions
This is one report in the series of reports that discus the Budget Reconciliation- Medicaid, Medicare, and SCHIP Provisions. These are some of the issues discussed in this report: Medicaid Outpatient Prescription Drugs, Long-Term Care under Medicaid, Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, State Financing and Medicaid, Improving the Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, Medicare Advantage, and other Medicare Provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7918/
Budget Reconciliation: Projections of Funding in the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
In FY2005, six states faced the prospect of running out of federal funds in the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). This was the first time since the program’s creation in 1997 that multiple states faced such a shortfall. The shortfalls were avoided by the redistribution of funds from other states’ original SCHIP allotments that had not been spent by the end of the three-year period of availability. To address this, the reconciliation proposal approved by the Senate Finance Committee would reduce the period of availability for original allotments from three years to two. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7916/