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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: November 13, 2002
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: June 26, 2002
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: October 15, 2003
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: June 25, 2003
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics

Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics

Date: September 12, 2013
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report discusses the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program that was enacted in 1975 as a federal-state program (Title IV-D of the Social Security Act) to help strengthen families by securing financial support for children from their noncustodial parent on a consistent and continuing basis and by helping some families to remain self-sufficient and off public assistance by providing the requisite CSE services.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare and TANF Implementation: Recent Findings

Child Welfare and TANF Implementation: Recent Findings

Date: July 8, 2002
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report examines recent research findings about Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) implementation as it has affected the nation’s child welfare system. The nation’s program of cash aid for needy families with children (TANF) and its program to protect and care for children who are abused or neglected (child welfare services) are linked by history and share some of the same clients who have similar service needs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare Financing: An Issue Overview

Child Welfare Financing: An Issue Overview

Date: April 6, 2005
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: The purpose of this report is to describe the federal interest in child welfare (as expressed by Congress); describe the current level and structure of federal dedicated child welfare financing and examine trends in the appropriation and spending of this money; and to review the extent to which states rely on non-dedicated federal funds for child welfare purposes. Finally, the report discusses the future federal commitment to child welfare financing, along with the concepts of flexibility and accountability, as these relate both to current law and to recent proposals to alter federal child welfare financing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare: Foster Care and Adoption Assistance Provisions in the Budget Reconciliation Bills

Child Welfare: Foster Care and Adoption Assistance Provisions in the Budget Reconciliation Bills

Date: November 18, 2005
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report provides background information on provisions relevant to federal funding for child welfare purposes and other child welfare related provisions included in S. 1932 and H.R. 4241, and will be updated as necessary.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare Waiver Demonstrations

Child Welfare Waiver Demonstrations

Date: June 16, 2003
Creator: Shuman, Matthew
Description: This report provides background information on the child welfare waivers and a description of the progress states have made on these demonstration projects. Waiver projects must be cost neutral to the federal government; may be conducted for no longer than 5 years (though HHS may grant an extension of up to 5 years); and must include an evaluation comparing the existing state program to the waiver project.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Parental Child Abductions

International Parental Child Abductions

Date: November 22, 2010
Creator: Smith, Alison M.
Description: International child custody disputes are likely to increase in frequency as the global society becomes more integrated and mobile. Since 1988, the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction ("Hague Convention" or "Convention") has been the principal mechanism for enforcing the return of abducted children to the United States. This report will discuss the applicability of the Hague Convention and current U.S. laws, both civil and criminal, which seek to address the quandary of children abducted by parents to foreign nations. In addition, pending legislation, including H.R. 3240 and H.R. 3487, is discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Homelessness: Targeted Federal Programs and Recent Legislation

Homelessness: Targeted Federal Programs and Recent Legislation

Date: May 17, 2012
Creator: Perl, Libby; Bagalman, Erin; Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.; Heisler, Elayne J.; McCallion, Gail & McCarthy, Francis X.
Description: This report describes the federal programs that are targeted to assist those who are homeless; includes recent funding levels; discusses current issues, including homelessness after the economic downturn and federal efforts to end homelessness; and provides information on recent legislation. Among active legislation are bills to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, which includes transitional housing for those who are homeless as a result of domestic violence and legislation that would, among other things, reauthorize the Education for Homeless Children and Youth program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare: State Performance on Child and Family Services Reviews

Child Welfare: State Performance on Child and Family Services Reviews

Date: June 29, 2005
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report begins with a short history of the legislation and other factors that led to the creation of the current CFSR and then briefly describes how a CFSR is conducted and what “substantial conformity” with federal child welfare policy means in the context of this review. Much has been made of the fact that no state was found to be in substantial conformity with all aspects of federal policy reviewed during the initial (FY2001-FY2004) round of the CFSRs. This report seeks to better understand that fact by looking closely at state performance on each of the performance indicators that determined compliance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
CRS Issue Statement on Child Well-Being

CRS Issue Statement on Child Well-Being

Date: January 6, 2009
Creator: Fernandes, Adrienne L.
Description: The nation's future depends in large part on its children's ability to develop into contributing adult members of society. For that reason, and for what many would consider a society's moral responsibility to care for the young and vulnerable, Congress and the nation take an interest in promoting children's well-being. It can be argued that children are the nation's most valuable resource, constituting the next generation of workers, taxpayers, and parents. Their well-being and ability to develop into productive adults in an increasingly competitive global economy is influenced by a variety of factors, and public policies can affect these factors to varying degrees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Abuse: History, Legislation and Issues

Child Abuse: History, Legislation and Issues

Date: January 13, 1978
Creator: Jones, Jean Yavis
Description: This report discusses child abuse legislation in United States, child abuse prevention and treatment, incidence of child abuse and neglect. The report provides a summary of major legislation in the 1st session of the 95th congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP): A Brief Overview

State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP): A Brief Overview

Date: March 18, 2009
Creator: Herz, Elicia J.; Peterson, Chris L. & Baumrucker, Evelyne P.
Description: This report discusses the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which allows states to cover targeted low-income children with no health insurance in families with income above Medicaid eligibility levels.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Review of Medical Child Support: Background, Policy, and Issues

A Review of Medical Child Support: Background, Policy, and Issues

Date: November 3, 2003
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: Improving the establishment and enforcement of medical child support has been hampered to some extent by factors such as high health care costs, a decline in employer-provided health insurance coverage, an increase in the share of health insurance costs borne by employees, and the large number of uninsured children. This report provides a legislative history of medical support provisions in Child Support Enforcement (CSE) programs, describes current policy with respect to medical child support, examines available data, and discusses some of the issues related to medical child support. This report will not be updated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Adolescent Family Life and Abstinence Education Programs

Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Adolescent Family Life and Abstinence Education Programs

Date: October 4, 2004
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Juvenile Delinquents and Federal Criminal Law: The Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act and Related Matters

Juvenile Delinquents and Federal Criminal Law: The Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act and Related Matters

Date: October 25, 2004
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Juveniles in the Adult Criminal Justice System: An Overview

Juveniles in the Adult Criminal Justice System: An Overview

Date: May 8, 1998
Creator: Cavanagh, M. Suzanne & Teasley, David
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Infant Formula: National Problems

Infant Formula: National Problems

Date: April 27, 1984
Creator: Porter, Donna V.
Description: This report discusses congressional concerns regarding infant formula that was deficient in a required nutrient.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Head Start: Background and Funding

Head Start: Background and Funding

Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Butler, Alice & Gish, Melinda
Description: This report examines the history of federal funding for Head Start, which has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicaid and Schools

Medicaid and Schools

Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Herz, Elicia J.
Description: This report discusses the recent history and current issues facing Medicaid funding for certain health related costs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Size and Characteristics of the Cash Assistance Caseload

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Size and Characteristics of the Cash Assistance Caseload

Date: January 29, 2016
Creator: Falk, Gene
Description: This report examines the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance caseload, focusing on how the composition and characteristics of families receiving assistance have changed over time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department