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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"

Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"

Date: January 18, 2006
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: It has been proposed that Congress prohibit the sale or rental to minors of video games that are rated “M” (mature) or “AO” (adults-only) by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board. This board is a non-governmental entity established by the Interactive Digital Software Association, and its ratings currently have no legal effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coverage of the TANF Population Under Medicaid and SCHIP

Coverage of the TANF Population Under Medicaid and SCHIP

Date: March 8, 2006
Creator: Herz, Elicia J
Description: Health insurance is an important support for individuals receiving, leaving or diverted from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare or cash assistance program for low-income families. Medicaid and SCHIP (State Children’s Health Insurance Program) are key vehicles for providing such coverage. While there is no formal link between TANF and either Medicaid or SCHIP, some TANF-eligibles, especially children, are likely to qualify for one of these programs. But state eligibility rules can be complex and often differ for parents versus children, leaving some parents, in particular, without coverage.
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Coverage of the TANF Population Under Medicaid and SCHIP

Coverage of the TANF Population Under Medicaid and SCHIP

Date: January 27, 2005
Creator: Herz, Elicia J
Description: Health insurance is an important support for individuals receiving, leaving or diverted from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare or cash assistance program for low-income families. Medicaid and SCHIP (State Children’s Health Insurance Program) are key vehicles for providing such coverage. While there is no formal link between TANF and either Medicaid or SCHIP, some TANF-eligibles, especially children, are likely to qualify for one of these programs. But state eligibility rules can be complex and often differ for parents versus children, leaving some parents, in particular, without coverage.
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CRS Issue Statement on Child Well-Being

CRS Issue Statement on Child Well-Being

Date: January 6, 2009
Creator: Fernandes, Adrienne L.
Description: The nation's future depends in large part on its children's ability to develop into contributing adult members of society. For that reason, and for what many would consider a society's moral responsibility to care for the young and vulnerable, Congress and the nation take an interest in promoting children's well-being. It can be argued that children are the nation's most valuable resource, constituting the next generation of workers, taxpayers, and parents. Their well-being and ability to develop into productive adults in an increasingly competitive global economy is influenced by a variety of factors, and public policies can affect these factors to varying degrees.
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Distribution of Child Support Collections

Distribution of Child Support Collections

Date: March 4, 2003
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report discusses child support distribution policy. The general rules in effect as of October 1, 2000 are that child support collected during the time a family receives cash welfare belongs to the state; current child support and arrearages (past-due payments) that are owed to a family that is no longer receiving welfare belongs to the family; and child support owed to a family that never received welfare belongs to the family.
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Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Date: August 19, 2009
Creator: Lynch, Karen E. & McCallion, Gail
Description: Several federal programs support child care, education, or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. This report includes an update on FY2010 funding developments and the status of FY2009 appropriations in the early childhood care and education arena. This report also provides a six-year funding history and brief descriptions of the various related programs and tax provisions.
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Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Date: January 9, 2013
Creator: Lynch, Karen E. & McCallion, Gail
Description: Federal support for child care and education comes in many forms, ranging from grant programs to tax provisions. This report provides a funding overview and brief background information on federal child care, early education, and related programs (and tax provisions).
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Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Date: June 23, 2015
Creator: Lynch, Karen E. & McCallion, Gail
Description: This report begins with information on current and historical funding levels for a selection of early childhood care and education programs and tax provisions. Table 1 presents information on the FY2016 Obama Administration’s budget request for such programs, while Table 2 provides a six-year funding history (FY2010-FY2015) for these early childhood care and education programs and tax provisions. The funding section is followed by a series of program summaries.
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Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Date: January 26, 2010
Creator: Lynch, Karen E. & McCallion, Gail
Description: Several federal programs support child care, education, or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. This report includes an update on FY2010 funding developments and the status of FY2009 appropriations in the early childhood care and education arena. This report also provides a six-year funding history and brief descriptions of the various related programs and tax provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding

Date: March 18, 2010
Creator: Lynch, Karen E. & McCallion, Gail
Description: Federal support for child care and education comes in many forms, ranging from grant programs to tax provisions. This report provides a funding overview and brief background information on federal child care, early education, and related programs (and tax provisions).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs in the 110th Congress: Background and Funding

Early Childhood Care and Education Programs in the 110th Congress: Background and Funding

Date: January 17, 2007
Creator: Gish, Melinda & McCallion, Gail
Description: This report provides an overview of federal child care, early education, and related programs, and their funding status in the 110th Congress.
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Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues

Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues

Date: January 24, 2005
Creator: McCallion, Gail
Description: This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs, including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. Current federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education is debated are discussed.
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Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues

Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues

Date: January 19, 2006
Creator: McCallion, Gail
Description: This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs, including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. It also discusses federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education.
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Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions

Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: Title I, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to state and local educational agencies (SEAs, LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I grants are used to provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving children attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families. Services may be provided at pre-kindergarten through high school levels. Title I has been the anchor of the ESEA since it was first enacted in 1965, and is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program.
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Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: This report provides an overview of aspects of ESEA Title I-A which were substantially amended by the NCLBA; elements of the program which are important but which were not substantially revised by the NCLBA (such as parental involvement requirements) are not discussed in this report. Other current and forthcoming reports will provide more detailed discussions and analyses of selected major aspects of the program, including pupil assessments,2 accountability, and allocation formulas. This report will be updated regularly, to reflect significant actions regarding funding and implementation of the NCLBA provisions.
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Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to local educational agencies (LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I-A grants provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving and other pupils attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families in pre-kindergarten through grade 12. Title I-A is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program, with services provided to (a) over 90% of all LEAs; (b) approximately 45,000 (58% of all) public schools; and (c) approximately 11 million (22% of all) pupils, including approximately 167,000 pupils attending private schools. Four-fifths of all pupils served are in pre-kindergarten through grade 6, while only 5% of pupils served are in grades 10-12.
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Education for the Disadvantaged: Reauthorization Issues for ESEA Title I-A Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Education for the Disadvantaged: Reauthorization Issues for ESEA Title I-A Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Date: September 17, 2007
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C.
Description: This report provides an overview of aspects of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I-A that are likely to be the focus of substantial debate as the 110th Congress considers the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) reauthorization legislation.
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Eliminating International Child Labor: U.S. and International Initiatives

Eliminating International Child Labor: U.S. and International Initiatives

Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Salaam, Tiaji
Description: In November 1999, during the World Trade Organization (WTO) conference in Seattle, hundreds of protestors took to the street to protest a number of issues, including the international use of child labor, which has become increasingly important in discussions on international trade, human rights and international assistance. While awareness of the issue has increased, the ability to address the complex problem has been complicated by a number of related factors including rising poverty, surging HIV/AIDS infection rates, and a lack of relevant education. This report will outline the scope of the international child labor problem, explain the difficulties in eliminating it, describe U.S. and international child labor programs, and present some issues Congress may consider.
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Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children

Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children

Date: October 16, 2007
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report discusses "responsible fatherhood" programs that promote the financial and personal responsibility of noncustodial fathers to their children and increase the participation of fathers in the lives of their children.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children

Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children

Date: October 22, 2013
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report discusses programs that promote the financial and personal responsibility of noncustodial fathers to their children and increase the participation of fathers in the lives of their children. These programs have come to be known as "responsible fatherhood" programs.
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Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs and Unaccompanied Alien Children

Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs and Unaccompanied Alien Children

Date: September 22, 2014
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R. & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report addresses possible sources of federal support for schools and local educational agencies that have enrolled unaccompanied alien children.
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Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues

Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues

Date: May 13, 1988
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of most Federal elementary and secondary education programs, which the 100th Congress is currently considering, as well as the creation of several new programs. Issues have included: (1) Federal versus ~tate/local priorities in the use of funds; (2) use of formula grants or competitive grants to allocate funds; (3) services for eligible nonpublic school children; (4) relationship between Federal programs and State-level school reform activities; and (5) information about programs and participants for the Congress.
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Food and Agriculture Provisions in the FY1997 Supplemental Appropriations Act

Food and Agriculture Provisions in the FY1997 Supplemental Appropriations Act

Date: June 16, 1997
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Description: Report providing an overview of provisions and funding related to food and agriculture program as a part of a supplemental appropriations bill (P.L. 105-18, H.R. 1871).
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Handicapped Infants: The Final Section 504 Regulation and Legislative Proposals

Handicapped Infants: The Final Section 504 Regulation and Legislative Proposals

Date: February 8, 1984
Creator: Smith, Mary F.
Description: This report discusses the final rule regarding handicapped infants published in the Federal register by HHS on January 12, 1984. Legislative action in response to the Infant Doe issue is also discussed.
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