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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Breastfeeding and Jury Duty: State Laws, Court Rules, and Related Issues

Breastfeeding and Jury Duty: State Laws, Court Rules, and Related Issues

Date: May 17, 2005
Creator: Weimer, Douglas Reid
Description: The fact that a state, a court system, or a single court does not have a law, rule, or formally written procedure does not necessarily mean that a breastfeeding mother will be compelled to serve on a jury. It appears that a general “medical exception” from jury duty may be applicable to breastfeeding mothers in some instances, and local practice and custom may influence an excuse or deferral from jury duty. It appears that many of the decisions concerning a nursing mother’s excuse or deferral from jury duty are handled on a case-by-case basis by the individual courts.
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Breastfeeding: Federal Legislation

Breastfeeding: Federal Legislation

Date: May 5, 2005
Creator: Weimer, Douglas Reid
Description: There has been significant growth in the practice of breastfeeding in recent years. As a result, Congress and numerous state legislatures have considered various proposals concerning different aspects of breastfeeding. Through appropriations legislation, Congress has repeatedly affirmed a mother’s right to breastfeed on federal property or in a federal building, if the mother and child are authorized to be in that location. This practice was most recently affirmed in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005.
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Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions

Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions

Date: November 2, 2005
Creator: Baumrucker, Evelyne P; Chaikind, Hinda Ripps; Grady, April; Hahn, Jim; Hearne, Jean P; Herz, Elicia J et al.
Description: This is one report in the series of reports that discus the Budget Reconciliation- Medicaid, Medicare, and SCHIP Provisions. These are some of the issues discussed in this report: Medicaid Outpatient Prescription Drugs, Long-Term Care under Medicaid, Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, State Financing and Medicaid, Improving the Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, Medicare Advantage, and other Medicare Provisions.
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Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions

Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions

Date: October 31, 2005
Creator: Baumrucker, Evelyne P; Chaikind, Hinda Ripps; Grady, April; Hahn, Jim; Hearne, Jean P; Herz, Elicia J et al.
Description: This is one report in the series of reports that discus the Budget Reconciliation- Medicaid, Medicare, and SCHIP Provisions. These are some of the issues discussed in this report: Medicaid Outpatient Prescription Drugs, Long-Term Care under Medicaid, Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, State Financing and Medicaid, Improving the Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, Medicare Advantage, and other Medicare Provisions.
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Budget Reconciliation: Projections of Funding in the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)

Budget Reconciliation: Projections of Funding in the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)

Date: October 28, 2005
Creator: Peterson, Chris L
Description: In FY2005, six states faced the prospect of running out of federal funds in the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). This was the first time since the program’s creation in 1997 that multiple states faced such a shortfall. The shortfalls were avoided by the redistribution of funds from other states’ original SCHIP allotments that had not been spent by the end of the three-year period of availability. To address this, the reconciliation proposal approved by the Senate Finance Committee would reduce the period of availability for original allotments from three years to two.
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Child Abuse: History, Legislation and Issues

Child Abuse: History, Legislation and Issues

Date: January 13, 1978
Creator: Jones, Jean Yavis
Description: This report discusses child abuse legislation in United States, child abuse prevention and treatment, incidence of child abuse and neglect. The report provides a summary of major legislation in the 1st session of the 95th congress.
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The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA): Background, Programs, and Funding

The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA): Background, Programs, and Funding

Date: November 4, 2009
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report begins with discussion of the issue and scope of child abuse and neglect, followed by a discussion of the manner and scope of the work of the child protective services (CPS) agency in receiving and responding to allegations of child abuse or neglect, and then looks at some identified risk factors for poor child and family outcomes among all children in families investigated for abuse or neglect.
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The Child Care and Development Block Grant: Background and Funding

The Child Care and Development Block Grant: Background and Funding

Date: April 7, 2003
Creator: Butler, Alice & Gish, Melinda
Description: This report discusses several federal programs support child care for low-income families, the principal being a federal block grant program: The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG). The CCDBG is administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and provides allotments to states, according to a formula, which are used to subsidize the child care expenses of low-income families with children under age 13.
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Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
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Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: March 10, 2003
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
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Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: October 29, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
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Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: July 2, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
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Child Care Issues in the 108th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: September 16, 2003
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 108th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Care Issues in the 108th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: April 10, 2003
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 108th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Care Issues in the 108th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: September 15, 2003
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 108th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Care Issues in the 109th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: August 2, 2005
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: Federal support for child care comes in many forms, ranging from grant programs to tax provisions. Some programs serve as specifically dedicated funding sources for child care services (e.g., the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG)), while for others (e.g., Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)), child care is just one of many purposes for which funds may be used. This report discusses budget proposals in areas related to child care and early childhood development in the 109th Congress.
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Child Labor in West African Cocoa Production: Issues and U.S. Policy

Child Labor in West African Cocoa Production: Issues and U.S. Policy

Date: July 13, 2005
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji; Hanrahan, Charles E & Cook, Nicolas
Description: This report outlines how and where cocoa is produced, discusses the use of abusive child labor in the industry, efforts by Congress to counter abusive child labor — including the Harkin-Engel Protocol, and initiatives by affected governments and international organizations to address the problem. This report also provides possible policy options that might undertaken to stop the use of child labor in cocoa production.
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Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Date: August 3, 2004
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Description: Federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities — including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) — reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant/postpartum women. In FY2004, anticipated spending on these programs is $16.6 billion, and the FY2004 appropriations law (P.L. 108-199) supports this spending level (although with new appropriations of a lesser amount, some $16 billion). The Administration’s FY2005 revised budget request envisions spending a total of $17.15 billion, supported by new appropriations of $16.47 billion. The House FY2005 appropriations bill (H.R. 4766) would support spending of $16.97 billion with new appropriations of $16.29 billion.
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Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Description: About a dozen federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities – including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) – reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant and postpartum women. Total FY2002 spending on these efforts was $15.1 billion. FY2003 spending is projected at an estimated $15.9 billion under the Agriculture Department appropriations portion (Division A) of the FY2003 Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (P.L. 108-7; H.Rept. 108-10; enacted February 20,2003). And the Administration anticipates spending $16.3 billion under its FY2004 budget.
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Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Date: July 24, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Description: About a dozen federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities – including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) – reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant and postpartum women. Total FY2002 spending on these efforts was $15.1 billion. FY2003 spending is projected at an estimated $15.9 billion under the Agriculture Department appropriations portion (Division A) of the FY2003 Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (P.L. 108-7; H.Rept. 108-10; enacted February 20,2003). And the Administration anticipates spending $16.3 billion under its FY2004 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Date: April 22, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Description: About a dozen federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities – including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) – reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant and postpartum women. Total FY2002 spending on these efforts was $15.1 billion. FY2003 spending is projected at an estimated $15.9 billion under the Agriculture Department appropriations portion (Division A) of the FY2003 Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (P.L. 108-7; H.Rept. 108-10; enacted February 20,2003). And the Administration anticipates spending $16.3 billion under its FY2004 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Nutrition Issues in the 105th Congress

Child Nutrition Issues in the 105th Congress

Date: June 18, 1998
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Description: This report covers proposed and enacted legislative initiatives to change child nutrition programs (including the WIC program) during 1997 and 1998.
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Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: November 13, 2002
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
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Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: June 26, 2002
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department