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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Legal Issues Relating to the Disposal of Dispensed Controlled Substances
This report describes an issue that is the fastest-growing drug problem in the country -- the intentional use of prescription drugs for non-medical purposes. It is the second-most common form of illicit drug abuse among teenagers in the United States behind marijuana use. Several bills have been introduced in the 111th Congress that would create a legal framework governing disposal of controlled substances that have been dispensed to patients. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31336/
The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting
This report discusses overarching trends in Millennium Development Goals (MDG) progress and lessons learned from previous and ongoing efforts to achieve them. The MDGs are a group of measurable development targets agreed to by 189 U.N. member states - including the United States - as part of the 2000 Millennium Declaration. The MDGs cover a number of issues, such as eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, combating HIV/AIDS, and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. This report examines U.S. policy toward the MDGs and how, if at all, the Goals fit into U.S. development and foreign assistance policy. It also examines different schools of thought regarding the effectiveness of the Goals, their role in international development, and their long-term sustainability. This report addresses the MDGs as a whole; it does not assess or analyze issues pertaining to the individual Goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29607/
CRS Issue Statement on Child Well-Being
The nation's future depends in large part on its children's ability to develop into contributing adult members of society. For that reason, and for what many would consider a society's moral responsibility to care for the young and vulnerable, Congress and the nation take an interest in promoting children's well-being. It can be argued that children are the nation's most valuable resource, constituting the next generation of workers, taxpayers, and parents. Their well-being and ability to develop into productive adults in an increasingly competitive global economy is influenced by a variety of factors, and public policies can affect these factors to varying degrees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83881/
Nonmarital Childbearing: Trends, Reasons, and Public Policy Interventions
This report analyzes the trends in nonmarital childbearing, discusses some of the characteristics of unwed mothers, addresses some issues involving the fathers of children born outside of marriage, covers many of the reasons for nonmarital childbearing, examines the impact of nonmarital births on families and on the nation, and presents the public policy interventions that have been used to prevent nonmarital births or ameliorate some of the negative financial consequences that are sometimes associated with nonmarital childbearing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26294/
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
This report discusses the constitutional status of child pornography and summarizes federal statutes banning and regulating child pornography as well as selected court cases that have ruled on their constitutionality or interpreted them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26087/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9446/
The Runaway and Homeless Youth Program: Administration, Funding, and Legislative Actions
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The Runaway and Homeless Youth Program: Administration, Funding, and Legislative Actions
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The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Recent History and Current Issues
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The Link Between Medicaid and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Recent History and Current Issues
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Coverage of the TANF Population Under Medicaid and SCHIP
Health insurance is an important support for individuals receiving, leaving or diverted from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare or cash assistance program for low-income families. Medicaid and SCHIP (State Children’s Health Insurance Program) are key vehicles for providing such coverage. While there is no formal link between TANF and either Medicaid or SCHIP, some TANF-eligibles, especially children, are likely to qualify for one of these programs. But state eligibility rules can be complex and often differ for parents versus children, leaving some parents, in particular, without coverage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8936/
The Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Program-by-Program Overview and FY2007 Funding of Title I Training Programs
Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220) authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities, Job Corps, the Native American Program, the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Program, and the Veterans’ Workforce Investment Program. This report briefly summarizes each WIA program, the FY2007 budget request, and for comparison, the FY2006 appropriation (P.L. 109-149). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9968/
The Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Program-by-Program Overview and FY2007 Funding of Title I Training Programs
Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220) authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities, Job Corps, the Native American Program, the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Program, and the Veterans’ Workforce Investment Program. This report briefly summarizes each WIA program, the FY2007 budget request, and for comparison, the FY2006 appropriation (P.L. 109-149). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9992/
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: FY2007 Budget Proposals
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Medicaid and SCHIP: FY2007 Budget Issues
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Side-by-Side Comparison of Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Provisions in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005
From the summary: "This report provides a comparison of Medicare, Medicaid and State Child Health Insurance Program provisions contained in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (S. 1932) as amended and passed by the Senate. The report compares the bill's provisions with current law." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9230/
Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"
It has been proposed that Congress prohibit the sale or rental to minors of video games that are rated “M” (mature) or “AO” (adults-only) by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board. This board is a non-governmental entity established by the Interactive Digital Software Association, and its ratings currently have no legal effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9144/
Parental Notification and Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England
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Child Welfare: Foster Care and Adoption Assistance Provisions in the Budget Reconciliation Bills
This report provides background information on provisions relevant to federal funding for child welfare purposes and other child welfare related provisions included in S. 1932 and H.R. 4241, and will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7935/
Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions
This is one report in the series of reports that discus the Budget Reconciliation- Medicaid, Medicare, and SCHIP Provisions. These are some of the issues discussed in this report: Medicaid Outpatient Prescription Drugs, Long-Term Care under Medicaid, Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, State Financing and Medicaid, Improving the Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, Medicare Advantage, and other Medicare Provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7917/
Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions
This is one report in the series of reports that discus the Budget Reconciliation- Medicaid, Medicare, and SCHIP Provisions. These are some of the issues discussed in this report: Medicaid Outpatient Prescription Drugs, Long-Term Care under Medicaid, Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, State Financing and Medicaid, Improving the Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, Medicare Advantage, and other Medicare Provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7918/
Budget Reconciliation: Projections of Funding in the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
In FY2005, six states faced the prospect of running out of federal funds in the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). This was the first time since the program’s creation in 1997 that multiple states faced such a shortfall. The shortfalls were avoided by the redistribution of funds from other states’ original SCHIP allotments that had not been spent by the end of the three-year period of availability. To address this, the reconciliation proposal approved by the Senate Finance Committee would reduce the period of availability for original allotments from three years to two. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7916/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9665/
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9667/
Impact on States of Revised Redistribution of Unspent FY2002 SCHIP Allotments
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TANF Reauthorization: Side-by-Side Comparison of Current Law, S. 667 and H.R. 240 (TANF Provisions)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9260/
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Its Role In Response to the Effects of Hurricane Katrina
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7644/
TANF Cash Benefits as of January 1, 2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9257/
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7502/
Medicaid Eligibility for Adults and Children
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7299/
Child Labor in West African Cocoa Production: Issues and U.S. Policy
This report outlines how and where cocoa is produced, discusses the use of abusive child labor in the industry, efforts by Congress to counter abusive child labor — including the Harkin-Engel Protocol, and initiatives by affected governments and international organizations to address the problem. This report also provides possible policy options that might undertaken to stop the use of child labor in cocoa production. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9107/
SCHIP Financing: Funding Projections and State Redistribution Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6764/
Child Welfare: State Performance on Child and Family Services Reviews
This report begins with a short history of the legislation and other factors that led to the creation of the current CFSR and then briefly describes how a CFSR is conducted and what “substantial conformity” with federal child welfare policy means in the context of this review. Much has been made of the fact that no state was found to be in substantial conformity with all aspects of federal policy reviewed during the initial (FY2001-FY2004) round of the CFSRs. This report seeks to better understand that fact by looking closely at state performance on each of the performance indicators that determined compliance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7688/
Medicaid and SCHIP: The President's FY2006 Budget Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7591/
Amber Alert Program Technology
This report discusses provisions in the National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004 to test Amber Alert network technology for use in expanding the Emergency Alert System (EAS). The Amber Alert network utilizes a combination of technologies, such as highway messages boards, the Internet, and text messaging, to ensure the swift recovery of abducted children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7629/
Breastfeeding and Jury Duty: State Laws, Court Rules, and Related Issues
The fact that a state, a court system, or a single court does not have a law, rule, or formally written procedure does not necessarily mean that a breastfeeding mother will be compelled to serve on a jury. It appears that a general “medical exception” from jury duty may be applicable to breastfeeding mothers in some instances, and local practice and custom may influence an excuse or deferral from jury duty. It appears that many of the decisions concerning a nursing mother’s excuse or deferral from jury duty are handled on a case-by-case basis by the individual courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7790/
Breastfeeding: Federal Legislation
There has been significant growth in the practice of breastfeeding in recent years. As a result, Congress and numerous state legislatures have considered various proposals concerning different aspects of breastfeeding. Through appropriations legislation, Congress has repeatedly affirmed a mother’s right to breastfeed on federal property or in a federal building, if the mother and child are authorized to be in that location. This practice was most recently affirmed in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7786/
Child Welfare Financing: An Issue Overview
The purpose of this report is to describe the federal interest in child welfare (as expressed by Congress); describe the current level and structure of federal dedicated child welfare financing and examine trends in the appropriation and spending of this money; and to review the extent to which states rely on non-dedicated federal funds for child welfare purposes. Finally, the report discusses the future federal commitment to child welfare financing, along with the concepts of flexibility and accountability, as these relate both to current law and to recent proposals to alter federal child welfare financing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7687/
TANF Reauthorization: Side-by-Side Comparison of Current Law and Two Versions of H.R. 4 (108th Congress)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9259/
Coverage of the TANF Population Under Medicaid and SCHIP
Health insurance is an important support for individuals receiving, leaving or diverted from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare or cash assistance program for low-income families. Medicaid and SCHIP (State Children’s Health Insurance Program) are key vehicles for providing such coverage. While there is no formal link between TANF and either Medicaid or SCHIP, some TANF-eligibles, especially children, are likely to qualify for one of these programs. But state eligibility rules can be complex and often differ for parents versus children, leaving some parents, in particular, without coverage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8896/
Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act
Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to local educational agencies (LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I-A grants provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving and other pupils attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families in pre-kindergarten through grade 12. Title I-A is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program, with services provided to (a) over 90% of all LEAs; (b) approximately 45,000 (58% of all) public schools; and (c) approximately 11 million (22% of all) pupils, including approximately 167,000 pupils attending private schools. Four-fifths of all pupils served are in pre-kindergarten through grade 6, while only 5% of pupils served are in grades 10-12. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6120/
Juvenile Delinquents and Federal Criminal Law: The Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act and Related Matters
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Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Adolescent Family Life and Abstinence Education Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5749/
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress
The purpose of this report is to present a number of generally less broad legislative proposals related to child welfare financing have been introduced in the 108th Congress. Additional child welfare-related proposals designed to improve services, promote timely placement of children across state lines, and for other purposes, are described in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5750/
Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding
Federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities — including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) — reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant/postpartum women. In FY2004, anticipated spending on these programs is $16.6 billion, and the FY2004 appropriations law (P.L. 108-199) supports this spending level (although with new appropriations of a lesser amount, some $16 billion). The Administration’s FY2005 revised budget request envisions spending a total of $17.15 billion, supported by new appropriations of $16.47 billion. The House FY2005 appropriations bill (H.R. 4766) would support spending of $16.97 billion with new appropriations of $16.29 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8527/
Internet: Status Report on Legislative Attempts to Protect Children from Unsuitable Material on the Web
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Internet: Status Report on Legislative Attempts to Protect Children from Unsuitable Material on the Web
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5804/
Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act
This report provides an overview of aspects of ESEA Title I-A which were substantially amended by the NCLBA; elements of the program which are important but which were not substantially revised by the NCLBA (such as parental involvement requirements) are not discussed in this report. Other current and forthcoming reports will provide more detailed discussions and analyses of selected major aspects of the program, including pupil assessments,2 accountability, and allocation formulas. This report will be updated regularly, to reflect significant actions regarding funding and implementation of the NCLBA provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6559/
Internet: Status Report on Legislative Attempts to Protect Children from Unsuitable Material on the Web
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5803/
Supplemental Educational Services for Children from Low-Income Families Under ESEA Title I-A
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7578/