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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Head Start: Background and Funding

Head Start: Background and Funding

Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Butler, Alice & Gish, Melinda
Description: This report examines the history of federal funding for Head Start, which has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: Lewis, Karen J. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report offers an overview of the development of abortion law from 1973 to the present. Beginning with a brief discussion of the historical background, the report analyzes the leading Supreme Court decisions over the past twenty-eight years, emphasizing particularly the landmark decisions in Roe and Doe, the Court’s shift in direction in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, and the Court’s most recent decision on abortion, Stenberg v. Carhart. The Court’s decisions on the constitutionality of restricting public funding for abortion are also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions

Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Description: Title I, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to state and local educational agencies (SEAs, LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I grants are used to provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving children attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families. Services may be provided at pre-kindergarten through high school levels. Title I has been the anchor of the ESEA since it was first enacted in 1965, and is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reaching Low-Income, Uninsured Children: Are Medicaid and SCHIP Doing the Job?

Reaching Low-Income, Uninsured Children: Are Medicaid and SCHIP Doing the Job?

Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Herz, Elicia J & Baumrucker, Evelyne P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet - Protecting Children from Unsuitable Material and Sexual Predators: Overview and Pending Legislation

Internet - Protecting Children from Unsuitable Material and Sexual Predators: Overview and Pending Legislation

Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate

Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate

Date: November 28, 2001
Creator: Teasley, David & Cooper, Edith Fairman
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare: The Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program

Child Welfare: The Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program

Date: January 24, 2002
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie & Spar, Karen
Description: The report describes the authorization of funding for the Promoting Safe and Stable Families program (first created in 1993 under a different name) that has expired in the end of FY2001; thus, the 107th Congress acted to reauthorize this program and make some program changes (H.R. 2873, P.L. 107-133). P.L. 107-133 expands the definition of family preservation services under the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program to include infant safe haven programs; clarifies the meaning of family support to include services that “strengthen parental relationships and promote healthy marriages”; provides for reallocation of unused program funds; and states that, out of any discretionary funds appropriated for the Safe and Stable Families Program, 3.3% will be added to the existing $10 million setaside for Court Improvement Grants; 3.3% will be added to the existing $6 million reservation for evaluation, technical assistance, research and training; and 2% will be added to the existing set-aside for Indian tribes (1% of mandatory funds).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: June 26, 2002
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: July 2, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare and TANF Implementation: Recent Findings

Child Welfare and TANF Implementation: Recent Findings

Date: July 8, 2002
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report examines recent research findings about Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) implementation as it has affected the nation’s child welfare system. The nation’s program of cash aid for needy families with children (TANF) and its program to protect and care for children who are abused or neglected (child welfare services) are linked by history and share some of the same clients who have similar service needs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate

Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate

Date: October 4, 2002
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne; Teasley, David & Cooper, Edith Fairman
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: October 29, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: November 13, 2002
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate

Juvenile Justice Legislation: Overview and the Legislative Debate

Date: November 27, 2002
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne; Teasley, David & Cooper, Edith Fairman
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Pornography Produced Without an Actual Child: Constitutionality of 108th Congress Legislation

Child Pornography Produced Without an Actual Child: Constitutionality of 108th Congress Legislation

Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report analyzes S. 151, 108th Congress, as reported by the Senate Committee on the Judiciary (S.Rept. 108-2) and passed by the Senate, and considers whether it would violate freedom of speech.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Funding

Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Description: About a dozen federally supported child nutrition programs and related activities – including school meal programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (the WIC program) – reach over 37 million children and almost 2 million lower-income pregnant and postpartum women. Total FY2002 spending on these efforts was $15.1 billion. FY2003 spending is projected at an estimated $15.9 billion under the Agriculture Department appropriations portion (Division A) of the FY2003 Consolidated Appropriations Resolution (P.L. 108-7; H.Rept. 108-10; enacted February 20,2003). And the Administration anticipates spending $16.3 billion under its FY2004 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Eliminating International Child Labor: U.S. and International Initiatives

Eliminating International Child Labor: U.S. and International Initiatives

Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Salaam, Tiaji
Description: In November 1999, during the World Trade Organization (WTO) conference in Seattle, hundreds of protestors took to the street to protest a number of issues, including the international use of child labor, which has become increasingly important in discussions on international trade, human rights and international assistance. While awareness of the issue has increased, the ability to address the complex problem has been complicated by a number of related factors including rising poverty, surging HIV/AIDS infection rates, and a lack of relevant education. This report will outline the scope of the international child labor problem, explain the difficulties in eliminating it, describe U.S. and international child labor programs, and present some issues Congress may consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress

Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: March 3, 2003
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: The purpose of this report is to present a number of generally less broad legislative proposals related to child welfare financing have been introduced in the 108th Congress. Additional child welfare-related proposals designed to improve services, promote timely placement of children across state lines, and for other purposes, are described in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Distribution of Child Support Collections

Distribution of Child Support Collections

Date: March 4, 2003
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report discusses child support distribution policy. The general rules in effect as of October 1, 2000 are that child support collected during the time a family receives cash welfare belongs to the state; current child support and arrearages (past-due payments) that are owed to a family that is no longer receiving welfare belongs to the family; and child support owed to a family that never received welfare belongs to the family.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: March 10, 2003
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Pornography Produced Without an Actual Child: Constitutionality of 108th Congress Legislation

Child Pornography Produced Without an Actual Child: Constitutionality of 108th Congress Legislation

Date: March 31, 2003
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report analyzes the First Amendment issues raised by S. 151, 108th Congress, in the versions passed by the Senate and the House. The Senate passed the version reported by the Senate Committee on the Judiciary (S.Rept. 108-2). The House version began as H.R. 1161, which, except for its section 10, was adopted as an amendment (Title V) to H.R. 1104, which the House passed as S. 151, the Child Abduction Prevention Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress

Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: The purpose of this report is to present a number of generally less broad legislative proposals related to child welfare financing have been introduced in the 108th Congress. Additional child welfare-related proposals designed to improve services, promote timely placement of children across state lines, and for other purposes, are described in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Child Care and Development Block Grant: Background and Funding

The Child Care and Development Block Grant: Background and Funding

Date: April 7, 2003
Creator: Butler, Alice & Gish, Melinda
Description: This report discusses several federal programs support child care for low-income families, the principal being a federal block grant program: The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG). The CCDBG is administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and provides allotments to states, according to a formula, which are used to subsidize the child care expenses of low-income families with children under age 13.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department