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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. The report also highlights issues for the 111th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Date: August 5, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Head Start: Background and Issues

Head Start: Background and Issues

Date: November 10, 2005
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Description: This report discusses federal program called head start program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965. The Head Start program has received increases of varying levels over the past two decades.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amber Alert Program Technology

Amber Alert Program Technology

Date: September 9, 2009
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: This report discusses Amber Alerts (also referred to as AMBER plans) which use technology to disseminate information about child abductions in a timely manner. Technologies used for alerts include the Emergency Alert System (EAS), highway messages boards, telephone alert systems, the Internet, text messaging, and email.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying

Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying

Date: October 19, 2009
Creator: Smith, Alison M.
Description: This report discusses Internet crimes, such as cyberbullying, cyberharassment, and cyberstalking, along with the limitations of such laws in the current environment. While Congress, under the Commerce Clause, has authority to regulate the Internet, Internet "harassment" presents new challenges for legislators in terms of defining and prosecuting such activity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Parental Child Abductions

International Parental Child Abductions

Date: November 2, 2009
Creator: Smith, Alison M.
Description: This report discusses the applicability of the Hague Convention and current U.S. laws, both civil and criminal, which seek to address the quandary of children abducted by a parent to foreign nations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Missing and Exploited Children: Background, Policies, and Issues

Missing and Exploited Children: Background, Policies, and Issues

Date: April 29, 2015
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: This report covers only select aspects of the broader topic of missing and exploited children. It begins with an overview of the scope of the missing and exploited children issue, including definitions and approximate numbers of children known to be missing or exploited. The report also provides information about the Missing and Exploited Children's (MEC) program's funding, oversight, and major components. Finally, the report discusses issues that may be relevant to the MEC program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security's Effect on Child Poverty

Social Security's Effect on Child Poverty

Date: January 21, 2008
Creator: Gabe, Thomas
Description: This report discusses Social Security (SS), which plays an important role in reducing poverty among the elderly and children.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA): Background, Programs, and Funding

The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA): Background, Programs, and Funding

Date: November 4, 2009
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report begins with discussion of the issue and scope of child abuse and neglect, followed by a discussion of the manner and scope of the work of the child protective services (CPS) agency in receiving and responding to allegations of child abuse or neglect, and then looks at some identified risk factors for poor child and family outcomes among all children in families investigated for abuse or neglect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Date: December 2, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying

Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying

Date: September 5, 2008
Creator: Smith, Alison M.
Description: This report discusses Internet crimes, such as cyberbullying, cyberharassment, and cyberstalking, along with the limitations of such laws in the current environment. While Congress, under the Commerce Clause, has authority to regulate the Internet, Internet "harassment" presents new challenges for legislators in terms of defining and prosecuting such activity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children

Fatherhood Initiatives: Connecting Fathers to Their Children

Date: October 16, 2007
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report discusses "responsible fatherhood" programs that promote the financial and personal responsibility of noncustodial fathers to their children and increase the participation of fathers in the lives of their children.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Date: May 12, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare: Recent and Proposed Federal Funding

Child Welfare: Recent and Proposed Federal Funding

Date: May 21, 2009
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report provides an overview of the FY2010 President's budget request, and it discusses share of child welfare funding by general purpose.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Commission on Children and Disasters: Overview and Issues

The National Commission on Children and Disasters: Overview and Issues

Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: Keegan, Natalie
Description: This report discusses The National Commission on Children and Disasters whose purpose is to assess the needs of children in the preparation for, response to, and recovery from natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Date: May 10, 2010
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is an international treaty that addresses the rights of children worldwide. It calls on States Parties to take all appropriate measures to ensure that children receive special rights, including the right to a name and nationality; access to healthcare, education, and parental care; and protection from exploitation, abuse, and neglect. This report provides a brief history of the Convention and outlines its objectives and structure, including the role and responsibilities of the treaty's monitoring body, the Committee on the Rights of the Child. It examines U.S. policy toward CRC, including the positions of past and current Administrations and congressional perspectives. The report also addresses selected policy issues that the 111th Congress may wish to take into account if considering ratification of CRC-- including the treaty's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, federal and state laws, and parental rights. Other issues for possible consideration include the effectiveness of the Convention in protecting children's rights, and its role as a U.S. foreign policy instrument.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Foreign Policy Considerations

Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Foreign Policy Considerations

Date: February 10, 2015
Creator: Meyer, Peter J.; Seelke, Claire Ribando; Taft-Morales, Maureen & Margesson, Rhoda
Description: This report examines policy considerations for Congress in response to the recent influx of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) from Central American countries being apprehended at the U.S. border. The report also discusses current policy framework and the Obama Administration's diplomatic response.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

Date: January 21, 2015
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa & Brown, Cynthia
Description: This report discusses the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities; its purpose is to promote, protect, and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare and Child Support: The Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (P.L. 113-183)

Child Welfare and Child Support: The Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (P.L. 113-183)

Date: October 16, 2014
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie; Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L. & Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report begins with an overview and topical summary of the provisions of the Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (H.R. 4980), which seeks to ensure that child welfare agencies are responsive to particular issues for children and youth in foster care or those who otherwise have contact with the child welfare system. The report follows this with a review of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) cost estimate for H.R. 4980 and the legislative origins of the enacted bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting

The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting

Date: December 9, 2010
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Description: This report discusses overarching trends in Millennium Development Goals (MDG) progress and lessons learned from previous and ongoing efforts to achieve them. The MDGs are a group of measurable development targets agreed to by 189 U.N. member states - including the United States - as part of the 2000 Millennium Declaration. The MDGs cover a number of issues, such as eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, combating HIV/AIDS, and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. This report examines U.S. policy toward the MDGs and how, if at all, the Goals fit into U.S. development and foreign assistance policy. It also examines different schools of thought regarding the effectiveness of the Goals, their role in international development, and their long-term sustainability. This report addresses the MDGs as a whole; it does not assess or analyze issues pertaining to the individual Goals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Runaway and Homeless Youth Act: Current Issues for Reauthorization

Runaway and Homeless Youth Act: Current Issues for Reauthorization

Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: This report discusses the Runaway and Homeless Youth program, which is authorized by the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act, and funds organizations throughout the country to provide services to youth who have run away and/or experience homelessness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Foreign Policy Considerations

Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Foreign Policy Considerations

Date: August 28, 2014
Creator: Meyer, Peter J.; Seelke, Claire Ribando; Taft-Morales, Maureen & Margesson, Rhoda
Description: This report examines policy considerations for Congress in response to the recent influx of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) from Central American countries being apprehended at the U.S. border. The report also discusses current policy framework and the Obama Administration's diplomatic response.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Special Immigrant Juveniles: In Brief

Special Immigrant Juveniles: In Brief

Date: August 29, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report provides a brief explanation of the statutory basis of special immigrant juvenile (SIJ) status and how it has evolved. It also presents statistics on the number of children who have applied for and received SIJ status since FY2005. The report concludes with a discussion of the applicability of SIJ status for unaccompanied alien children.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics

Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics

Date: January 27, 2014
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report discusses the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program that was enacted in 1975 as a federal-state program (Title IV-D of the Social Security Act) to help strengthen families by securing financial support for children from their noncustodial parent on a consistent and continuing basis and by helping some families to remain self-sufficient and off public assistance by providing the requisite CSE services.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department