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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Current Economic Recession: How Long, How Deep, and How Different From the Past?

The Current Economic Recession: How Long, How Deep, and How Different From the Past?

Date: January 10, 2002
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Description: This report examines the current recession and recessions of the previous three decades in detail. It gives a brief overview of the other post-war recessions. It outlines the fiscal and monetary policy response to each recession. It also looks at theories of why recessions occur. The report concludes by asking the question that many commentators in the news have asked recently: is this recession different from the past?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

Date: June 11, 2015
Creator: Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Description: This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
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The Senior Executive Service: Background and Options for Reform

The Senior Executive Service: Background and Options for Reform

Date: September 6, 2012
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.
Description: Report that provides a history and background of the Senior Executive Service (SES), examines the central features of the SES, and discusses some areas in which advocates for SES reform have called for change.
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Supervision of U.S. Payment, Clearing, and Settlement Systems: Designation of Financial Market Utilities (FMUs)

Supervision of U.S. Payment, Clearing, and Settlement Systems: Designation of Financial Market Utilities (FMUs)

Date: September 10, 2012
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report outlines the changes to the supervision of key market infrastructure that are embodied in the Dodd-Frank Act. It is intended to be used as a reference for those interested in the financial system's "plumbing," and how the associated systems are currently overseen and regulated.
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Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress

Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: On January 13, 2012, President Obama asked Congress for authority to reorganize and consolidate into one department the business- and trade-related functions of six federal entities. U.S. policymakers' interest in the organizational structure of U.S. government trade functions has grown in recent years, stimulated by congressional and federal efforts to promote U.S. exports and employment, including through the National Export Initiative (NEI). Interest also has been stimulated by national debates on reducing federal spending and the size of the U.S. government. This report looks at the policy debate and role of Congress in such a move.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Status of the Justice Department/American Telephone and Telegraph Company Antitrust Settlement: A Brief Overview

Status of the Justice Department/American Telephone and Telegraph Company Antitrust Settlement: A Brief Overview

Date: August 30, 1982
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A
Description: None
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Steel Industry and Trade Issues

Steel Industry and Trade Issues

Date: May 28, 2002
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: None
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Steel: Key Issues for Congress

Steel: Key Issues for Congress

Date: October 7, 2002
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: None
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Steel: Key Issues for Congress

Steel: Key Issues for Congress

Date: September 3, 2002
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: None
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Steel: Key Issues for Congress

Steel: Key Issues for Congress

Date: May 30, 2002
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: None
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Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts

Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts

Date: October 6, 2010
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report provides an overview of the payment and other protections for subcontractors on certain federal prime contracts under the Miller Act, the 1988 amendments to the Prompt Payment Act, and the Small Business Act. Congress enacted these statutes to give subcontractors rights and remedies they would not otherwise have because of legal doctrines relating to sovereign immunity, privity of contract, and freedom to contract. The report also discusses legislation introduced in the 111th Congress that would provide additional protections for subcontractors.
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Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy

Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy

Date: January 16, 2009
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Description: This report discusses the challenges and opportunities raised by the globalized world of business, in which production becomes fragmented into discrete activities that can be spread geographically within and across national borders while remaining integrated organizationally within a multinational company or network of companies. Such globalized production networks are called supply chains or value-added networks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

Date: October 5, 2015
Creator: Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Description: This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bankruptcy for Marijuana Businesses?

Bankruptcy for Marijuana Businesses?

Date: October 29, 2014
Creator: unknown
Description: This legal sidebar discusses recent bankruptcy court cases that suggest that one such risk may be the ultimate unavailability to both debtors and creditors of the protections, benefits, and predictability of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code when state-regulated marijuana businesses fail.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dairy Policy Issues

Dairy Policy Issues

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Description: This report discusses several dairy issues that have been or are being considered by the 109th Congress, some of which affect the three major federal dairy policy tools -- the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program, federal milk marketing orders, and the dairy price support program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
What Does the Gig Economy Mean for Workers?

What Does the Gig Economy Mean for Workers?

Date: February 5, 2016
Creator: Donovan, Sarah A.; Bradley, David H. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report provides an overview of the gig economy -- i.e., the collection of markets that match providers to consumers on a gig (or job) basis in support of on-demand commerce (e.g., Uber, TaskRabbit) -- and identifies legal and policy questions relevant to its workforce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview

Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview

Date: January 28, 2004
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of The Hollings Manufacturing Partnership (MEP), which is a program of regional centers set up to assist small and medium-sized manufacturing companies use knowledge and technologies developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
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Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Date: August 9, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report describes the Microloan program's eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers and examines the arguments presented by the program's critics and advocates. It also examines changes to the program authorized by P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010.
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Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement, In Brief

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement, In Brief

Date: March 15, 2016
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: This report briefly discusses the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act of 1977 (FCPA), which was intended to prevent corporate bribery of foreign officials. Criticisms of the act's operation and scope began almost immediately after its passage and have continued. This report addresses these criticisms.
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Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Date: May 28, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Microloan program provides direct loans to qualified nonprofit intermediary lenders who, in turn, provide “microloans” of up to $50,000 to small businesses and nonprofit child care centers. It also provides marketing, management, and technical assistance to microloan borrowers and potential borrowers. This report opens with a discussion of the rationale provided for having a Microloan program, describes the program’s eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers, and examines the arguments presented by the program’s critics and advocates. It then discusses P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, which increased the Microloan program’s loan limit for borrowers from $35,000 to $50,000, and the aggregate loan limit for intermediaries after their first year of participation in the program from $3.5 million to $5 million.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs and Funding

Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs and Funding

Date: March 20, 2014
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay & Lowry, Sean
Description: This report provides an overview of the Small Business Administration (SBA) business loan guaranty programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Double-Dip Recession: Previous Experience and Current Prospect

Double-Dip Recession: Previous Experience and Current Prospect

Date: December 3, 2010
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Description: This report discusses factors suggesting an increased risk of double-dip recession. It discusses other factors that suggest economic recovery will continue. The U.S. historical experience with double-dip recessions is also presented. It examines the role of deleveraging by households and businesses in the aftermath of the recent financial crisis in shaping the likely pace of economic recovery. The report concludes with a look at current economic projections.
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"Hollowing Out" in U.S. Manufacturing: Analysis and Issues for Congress

"Hollowing Out" in U.S. Manufacturing: Analysis and Issues for Congress

Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Description: Statistics showing that domestic value added represents a diminishing share of the value of U.S. factory output have been interpreted by many analysts as indicating that manufacturing is "hollowing out" as U.S. manufacturers undertake more highvalue work abroad. Economic data have been slow to take note of this development, which raises the question of whether the United States will continue to generate highly skilled, high-wage jobs related to advanced manufacturing. This report discusses economic evidence related to the "hollowing out" thesis with respect to the manufacturing sector. It then considers the policy implications of the debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Hollowing Out" in U.S. Manufacturing: Analysis and Issues for Congress

"Hollowing Out" in U.S. Manufacturing: Analysis and Issues for Congress

Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Description: The health of the U.S. manufacturing sector has been a long-standing concern of Congress. Only a small proportion of U.S. workers are now employed in factories. U.S. factories have stepped up production of goods that require high technological sophistication but relatively little direct labor. In the context of national security, the fact that U.S. manufacturers of vital products are critically dependent upon inputs from abroad is frequently a subject of concern. International comparisons indicate that the United States is in no way unique in its dependence on foreign inputs to manufacturing.
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