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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Authorized Generic Pharmaceuticals: Effects on Innovation

Authorized Generic Pharmaceuticals: Effects on Innovation

Date: August 8, 2006
Creator: Thomas, John R
Description: The practice of “authorized generics” has recently been the subject of considerable attention by the pharmaceutical industry, regulators, and members of Congress alike. An “authorized generic”–sometimes termed a “branded,” “flanking,” or “pseudo” generic–is a pharmaceutical that is marketed by or on behalf of a brand name drug company, but is sold under a generic name. Although the availability of an additional competitor in the generic drug market would appear to be favorable to consumers, authorized generics have nonetheless proven controversial. Some observers believe that authorized generics potentially discourage independent generic firms both from challenging drug patents and from selling their own products.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Barriers to Corporate Fraud: How They Work, Why They Fail

Barriers to Corporate Fraud: How They Work, Why They Fail

Date: December 27, 2004
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: The report focuses on the internal controls on American corporations (including corporate governance, business ethics, managerial structure and compensation, internal counsel, and whistleblowers), as well as external controls (government regulation, external auditors and accountants, and the judicial process). A recurring theme is the limited efficacy of many safeguards and watchdogs in cases of "control fraud," where fraud is directed or abetted by top management, and where unethical or abusive practices may become the organizational norm. Another broad question raised by the report is whether the post-Enron scandals were a one-time event, made possible by the stock market bubble of the 1990s and several other unique historical developments which together constituted a "perfect storm," or whether fraud is a cyclical phenomenon associated with the end of long bull markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo & Lister, Sarah A.
Description: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce certain types of plastic. Containers made of these plastics may expose people to small amounts of BPA in food and water. Some animal experiments have found that fetal and infant development may be harmed by small amounts of BPA, but scientists disagree about the value of the animal studies for predicting harmful effects in people. This report discusses this issue and relevant legislation, as well as inquiries into studies currently underway to determine the true harm inherent in BPA and the degree to which people are regularly exposed to BPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo & Lister, Sarah A.
Description: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce certain types of plastic. Containers made of these plastics may expose people to small amounts of BPA in food and water. Some animal experiments have found that fetal and infant development may be harmed by small amounts of BPA, but scientists disagree about the value of the animal studies for predicting harmful effects in people. This report discusses this issue and relevant legislation, as well as inquiries into studies currently underway to determine the true harm inherent in BPA and the degree to which people are regularly exposed to BPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects

Date: September 8, 2008
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo & Lister, Sarah A.
Description: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce certain types of plastic. Containers made of these plastics may expose people to small amounts of BPA in food and water. Some animal experiments have found that fetal and infant development may be harmed by small amounts of BPA, but scientists disagree about the value of the animal studies for predicting harmful effects in people. This report discusses this issue and relevant legislation, as well as inquiries into studies currently underway to determine the true harm inherent in BPA and the degree to which people are regularly exposed to BPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

Date: August 2, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

Date: June 23, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

Date: July 6, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005-FY2007

"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005-FY2007

Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Bunker Busters":  Sources of Confusion in the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Debate

"Bunker Busters": Sources of Confusion in the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Debate

Date: September 22, 2004
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP), often called a “bunker buster,” is at present the subject of a cost and feasibility study to determine if either of two nuclear bombs, the B61 and the B83, could be modified, mainly by adding a heavy, pointed case, so as to be able to penetrate perhaps 10 meters into earth or rock. This penetration would increase the weapon’s ability, by a factor of 20 to 50, to destroy hardened and deeply buried facilities. The RNEP debate has received much attention and spawned much confusion. This report examines sources of confusion in this debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department