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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues

Date: February 14, 2011
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: As global economic competition heightens, many firms and workers face difficult adjustment problems. Congress has responded to these adjustment costs by authorizing four trade adjustment assistance (TAA) programs to assist trade-impacted workers, firms, farmers, and communities. This report discusses the TAA program for firms (TAAF). The TAAF program provides technical assistance to trade-affected firms to help them develop strategies and make other adjustments to remain competitive in the changing international economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.S. Trade Policy

Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.S. Trade Policy

Date: July 19, 2011
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F. & Rover, Laine Elise
Description: This report looks at the background of Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) in the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, which was created by Congress. It then discusses how the 112th Congress is considering legislative action to extend the TAA - including two issues: how necessary or appropriate the extension is, and whether or not three proposed bills should be voted upon separately.
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Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.S. Trade Policy

Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.S. Trade Policy

Date: August 11, 2011
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F. & Rover, Laine Elise
Description: This report looks at the background of Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) in the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, which was created by Congress. It then discusses how the 112th Congress is considering legislative action to extend the TAA - including two issues: how necessary or appropriate the extension is, and whether or not three proposed bills should be voted upon separately.
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Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills

Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills

Date: October 20, 2010
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report discusses the current process by which duty suspension bills and other provisions are introduced, reviewed by several government agencies and committee staff, made available for public comment, and finally included in omnibus miscellaneous trade and technical corrections bills (MTBs) legislation reported out by the committees of jurisdiction.
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Responsibility Determinations Under the Federal Acquisition Regulation: Legal Standards and Procedures

Responsibility Determinations Under the Federal Acquisition Regulation: Legal Standards and Procedures

Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report discusses the standards and procedures that federal agencies use in making responsibility determinations under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). It discusses (1) how responsibility determinations relate to other mechanisms that the government relies upon to ensure that contractors are responsible and otherwise eligible for federal contracts; (2) the performance-related and collateral standards used in making responsibility determinations; (3) the procedures for making responsibility determinations; and (4) recently enacted or proposed amendments to the standards or procedures for responsibility determinations.
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SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Lowry, Sean
Description: This report opens with an examination of the current economic circumstances of veteran-owned businesses drawn from the Bureau of the Census 2007 Survey of Business Owners, which was administered in 2008 and 2009, and released on May 17, 2011. It also provides a brief overview of veteran employment experiences, describes the employment assistance programs offered by several federal agencies to assist veterans in their transition from the military to the civilian labor force, and examines related Small Business Administration (SBA) initiatives such as business development programs, efforts to assist veterans' access to capital, and veteran contracting programs.
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GAO Bid Protests: Trends and Analysis

GAO Bid Protests: Trends and Analysis

Date: July 21, 2015
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe & Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report is one of two providing Congress with background on the GAO bid-protest process. It analyzes trends in bid protests filed with GAO, why companies protest, the impact bid protests have on acquisitions, the most common grounds for GAO to sustain a protest, and trends in bid protests filed against DOD.
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SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

Date: June 5, 2014
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Lowry, Sean
Description: This report opens with an examination of the current economic circumstances of veteran-owned businesses drawn from the Bureau of the Census 2007 Survey of Business Owners, which was administered in 2008 and 2009, and released on May 17, 2011. It also provides a brief overview of veteran employment experiences, describes the employment assistance programs offered by several federal agencies to assist veterans in their transition from the military to the civilian labor force, and examines related Small Business Administration (SBA) initiatives such as business development programs, efforts to assist veterans' access to capital, and veteran contracting programs.
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Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: November 25, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report discusses the role of small business in job creation and retention, then provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans and recently enacted laws designed to enhance small business access to capital. It also examines recent actions concerning the SBA's budget and concludes with a brief overview of legislative options available to address small business access to capital issues during the 114th Congress.
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Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: December 2, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides an overview of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and highlights major issues for Congress. The first section discusses how the MDBs operate, and the second section discusses the role of Congress in the MDBs.
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GAO Bid Protests: An Overview of Time Frames and Procedures

GAO Bid Protests: An Overview of Time Frames and Procedures

Date: January 19, 2016
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Schwartz, Moshe
Description: This report provides an overview of the time frames and procedures in a Government Accountability Office (GAO) bid protest, including (1) what issues can be protested with GAO; (2) who can file or be a party to a GAO protest; (3) the procedures for bringing and resolving GAO protests; (4) the time frames involved in GAO protests; (5) the automatic stay of contract award or performance triggered by a GAO protest, as well as the basis for agency overrides of automatic stays and judicial review of agency override determinations; (6) the basis and effects of GAO decisions; and (7) reconsideration and "appeal" of GAO decisions.
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Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress

Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress

Date: May 22, 2015
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Description: Technological innovation is a primary engine of long-term economic growth, and research and development (R&D) serves as the lifeblood of innovation. The federal government encourages businesses to invest more in R&D than they otherwise would in several ways, including a tax credit for increases in spending on qualified research above a base amount. This report describes the current status of the credit, summarizes its legislative history, discusses policy issues it raises, and describes legislation to modify and extend it.
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Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy

Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy

Date: April 18, 2013
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Description: The 2007-2009 recession was long and deep, and according to several indicators was the most severe economic contraction since the 1930s (but still much less severe than the Great Depression). This report examines the state of the economy in light of the recession.
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Economic Downturns and Crime

Economic Downturns and Crime

Date: December 19, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: This report examines the relationships between selected variables of economic strength and crime. It begins with an overview of crime rates during times of economic recession in the United States. It then reviews the existing literature in the field analyzing various data sets that examine whether the unemployment rate and foreclosures can be related to increases in the national crime rate.
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Legal Authorities Governing Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses

Legal Authorities Governing Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses

Date: February 23, 2015
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Lunder, Erika K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the various legal authorities governing small business contracting and subcontracting, as well as the relationship between them. It also explains the roles of the Small Business Administration (SBA), procuring activities, Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA), Government Accountability Office (GAO), and other tribunals in implementing and construing the law governing federal contracting and subcontracting with small businesses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Brazil in Crisis

Brazil in Crisis

Date: April 6, 2016
Creator: Meyer, Peter J.
Description: Brazil is in the midst of deepening economic and political crises that are closely intertwined and unlikely to be resolved quickly. This report briefly examines the political situation and discusses public opinion regarding the Rousseff Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protection of Trade Secrets: Overview of Current Law and Legislation

Protection of Trade Secrets: Overview of Current Law and Legislation

Date: April 22, 2016
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: This report provides an overview of existing federal, state, and international laws governing trade secret protection, describes the limitations of these legal regimes, and reviews pending legislation, the Defend Trade Secrets Act (S. 1890), that is intended to address such deficiencies.
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Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: January 13, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the 112th Congress: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital? After briefly discussing the role of small business in job creation and retention, this report provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans. It also examines selected laws enacted during the 110th and 111th Congresses that were designed to enhance small business access to capital by increasing the supply of small business loans and/or the demand for small business loans. This report also includes empirical evidence concerning small business lending and borrowing, including the number and amount of small business loans guaranteed by the SBA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Athletic Footwear for the Military: The Berry Amendment Controversy

Athletic Footwear for the Military: The Berry Amendment Controversy

Date: June 10, 2016
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D.
Description: This report briefly examines issues regarding the Berry Amendment, which is a 1941 federal law (10 U.S.C. §2533a) requiring the Department of Defense (DOD) to purchase only wholly American-made clothing, textiles, and other essential items for the military.
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The Buy American Act--Preferences for "Domestic" Supplies: In Brief

The Buy American Act--Preferences for "Domestic" Supplies: In Brief

Date: April 26, 2016
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report discusses the Buy American Act of 1933, which is the earliest and arguably the best known of various statutes regarding federal procurement of domestic products. The act attempts to protect U.S. businesses and labor by restricting the acquisition and use of end products or construction materials that are not "domestic."
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Slow Growth in the Current U.S. Economic Expansion

Slow Growth in the Current U.S. Economic Expansion

Date: June 24, 2016
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.; Labonte, Marc & Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Description: This report summarizes the U.S. economic growth record and reviews a number of explanations forwarded by economists for why this expansion has featured slow growth. Some explanations focus on short-term factors that would not be expected to persist, while others focus on long-term changes to the economy. The report does not discuss labor market conditions, except in the context of how they contribute to the pace of GDP growth.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA) authorization is due to expire on September 30, 2010. The SBA administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guarantees to help small businesses gain access to capital. This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the SBA’s reauthorization process: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital?
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Small Business Administration HUBZone Program

Small Business Administration HUBZone Program

Date: December 17, 2013
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines arguments both for and against targeting assistance to geographic areas with specified characteristics, such as low income, high poverty, or high unemployment, as opposed to providing assistance to people or businesses with specified characteristics. It then assesses the arguments both for and against the continuation of the HUBZone program
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Financial Performance of the Major Oil Companies, 2007-2011

Financial Performance of the Major Oil Companies, 2007-2011

Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: Periods of rising oil prices can result in reduced economic growth, rising prices, and reduced disposable incomes for consumers, as well as a deteriorating trade balance. For the oil industry, periods of high oil prices generally imply increasing cash flows and higher profits. Although the U.S. oil industry is composed of many firms, to many the face of the oil industry is represented by the five major firms operating extensively in the U.S. market. These firms are ExxonMobil, Chevron, BP plc, Royal Dutch Shell plc, and ConocoPhillips. During the period 2007 to 2011, the five major companies' upstream activities of exploration and production contributed more to the total profitability of the firms than the downstream activities of refining and marketing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department