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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues
This report provides a historical examination of the Small Business Administration's (SBA) size standards, assesses competing views concerning how to define a small business, and discusses how various proposals to change the SBA's size standards -- including those adopted under the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 -- might affect program eligibility. It also discusses H.R. 585, the Small Business Size Standard Flexibility Act of 2011, which would authorize the SBA's Office of Chief Counsel for Advocacy to approve or disapprove a size standard proposed by a federal agency if it deviates from the SBA's size standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122193/
"Disadvantaged" Small Businesses: Definitions and Designations for Purposes of Federal and Federally Funded Contracting Programs
This report discusses what constitutes a "disadvantaged" small business for purposes of federal and federally funded contracting programs and how firms are certified or otherwise designated as such. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227655/
Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs
This report examines the historical development of federal small business management and technical assistance training programs; describes their current structures, operations, and budgets; and assesses their administration and oversight and the measures used to determine their effectiveness. It also discusses several bills introduced during the 111th and 112th Congresses that would have authorized changes to the SBA's management and technical assistance training programs in an effort to improve their performance and oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287966/
SBA Assistance to Small Business Startups: Client Experiences and Program Impact
This report examines small business startups' experiences with the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) management and technical assistance training programs, focusing on Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs), Women Business Centers (WBCs), and SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives); the 7(a), 504/CDC, and Microloan lending programs; and the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) venture capital program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284494/
Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs
This report examines small business startups' experiences with the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) management and technical assistance training programs -- focusing on Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs), Women Business Centers (WBCs), and SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives) -- the 7(a), 504/CDC, and Microloan lending programs; and the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) venture capital program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306530/
Contract “Bundling” Under the Small Business Act: Existing Law and Proposed Amendments
This report discusses regulations from Congress on bundling, which refers to the consolidation of two or more requirements for goods or services previously provided or performed under separate smaller contracts into a solicitation for a single contract that is likely to be unsuitable for award to a small business because of its size or scope. It particularly looks at the Small Business Act and new legislation by the 112th Congress to expand the definition of bundling, strengthen the authority of the Administrator of Small Business, and requirements for reporting bundled procurements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93828/
Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview
The U.S. economy has grown increasingly interconnected with other economies around the world, a phenomenon often referred to as globalization. Over the past 20 years, multinational corporations and nations have adopted voluntary, legally enforceable, and industry-specific codes of conduct to address concerns over the economic, social, and political impact of this phenomenon. Congress will continue to play a pivotal role in addressing the large number of issues regarding internationally applied corporate codes of conduct that remain to be negotiated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33087/
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program
This report discusses the Small Business Innovation Development Act (P.L. 97-219. The report also discusses the program's extensions and reauthorization activity over the years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227610/
SEC Climate Change Disclosure Guidance: An Overview and Congressional Concerns
Issues regarding the Congressional appeal of the January 27, 2010 SEC-published 'Commission Guidance Regarding Disclosure Related to Climate Change', which clarifies how publicly traded corporations should apply existing SEC disclosure rules to certain mandatory financial filings with the SEC regarding the risk that climate change developments may have on their businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86636/
The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues
This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227649/
Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832
Report that gives an overview of 18 U.S.C. 1832 (theft of trade secrets) and 18 U.S.C. 1831 (economic espionage). It also describes what constitutes as a stolen trade secret, and how such crimes are prosecuted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227785/
Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses: Issues in the 112th Congress
Congress has generally broad authority to impose requirements upon the federal procurement process, or the process whereby agencies obtain goods and services from the private sector. One of the many ways in which Congress has exercised this authority is by enacting measures intended to promote contracting and subcontracting with "small businesses" by federal agencies. This report describes and analyzes measures that Members of the 112th Congress have enacted or proposed in response to particular issues pertaining to small business contracting and subcontracting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86599/
Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival
This report looks at recent growth in the U.S. manufacturing sector, which has occurred not only as a result of the country's recovery from recession but also because a change in the nature of manufacturing work. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93885/
The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past
According to the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), the U.S. economy was in a recession for 18 months from December 2007 to June 2009. It was the longest and deepest recession of the post-World War II era. This report provides information on the patterns found across past recessions since World War II to gauge whether and how this recession might be different. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29560/
The Corporate Income Tax System: Overview and Options for Reform
This report (1) briefly reviews the current U.S. corporate tax system; (2) discusses economic factors that may be considered in the corporate tax reform debate; and (3) presents corporate tax reform policy options, including a brief discussion of current corporate tax reform proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122253/
The Role of Trade Secrets in Innovation Policy
This report provides an overview of the law and policy of trade secrets. It discusses the role of trade secrets in six sections: Trade Secrets and Innovation Policy, An Overview of Trade Secret Law (Basic Principles, and Sources of Law), The Economic Espionage Act, Trade Secrets and Patents (Introduction to the Patent System, Trade Secrets and Patents Compared, and The Prior Commercial User Defense), Congressional Issues and Options, and Concluding Observations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276918/
Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress
On January 13, 2012, President Obama asked Congress for authority to reorganize and consolidate into one department the business- and trade-related functions of six federal entities. U.S. policymakers' interest in the organizational structure of U.S. government trade functions has grown in recent years, stimulated by congressional and federal efforts to promote U.S. exports and employment, including through the National Export Initiative (NEI). Interest also has been stimulated by national debates on reducing federal spending and the size of the U.S. government. This report looks at the policy debate and role of Congress in such a move. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87237/
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement
This report briefly discusses the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act of 1977 (FCPA), which was intended to prevent corporate bribery of foreign officials. Criticisms of the act's operation and scope began almost immediately after its passage and have continued. This report discusses these criticisms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29622/
Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts
This report provides an overview of the payment and other protections for subcontractors on certain federal prime contracts under the Miller Act, the 1988 amendments to the Prompt Payment Act, and the Small Business Act. Congress enacted these statutes to give subcontractors rights and remedies they would not otherwise have because of legal doctrines relating to sovereign immunity, privity of contract, and freedom to contract. The report also discusses legislation introduced in the 111th Congress that would provide additional protections for subcontractors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29591/
Supervision of U.S. Payment, Clearing, and Settlement Systems: Designation of Financial Market Utilities (FMUs)
This report outlines the changes to the supervision of key market infrastructure that are embodied in the Dodd-Frank Act. It is intended to be used as a reference for those interested in the financial system's "plumbing," and how the associated systems are currently overseen and regulated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122203/
The Senior Executive Service: Background and Options for Reform
Report that provides a history and background of the Senior Executive Service (SES), examines the central features of the SES, and discusses some areas in which advocates for SES reform have called for change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227719/
Selected Recently Expired Business Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders")
This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and that are being considered for extension. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306513/
Double-Dip Recession: Previous Experience and Current Prospect
This report discusses factors suggesting an increased risk of a double-dip recession. A double-dip or W-shaped recession occurs when the economy emerges from a recession, has a short period of growth, but then, still well short of a full recovery, falls back into recession. It also discusses other factors that suggest economic recovery will continue. It presents the U.S. historical experience with double-dip recessions. It examines the role of deleveraging by households and businesses in the aftermath of the recent financial crisis in shaping the likely pace of economic recovery. The report concludes with a look at current economic projections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93846/
"Hollowing Out" in U.S. Manufacturing: Analysis and Issues for Congress
The health of the U.S. manufacturing sector has been a long-standing concern of Congress. Only a small proportion of U.S. workers are now employed in factories. U.S. factories have stepped up production of goods that require high technological sophistication but relatively little direct labor. In the context of national security, the fact that U.S. manufacturers of vital products are critically dependent upon inputs from abroad is frequently a subject of concern. International comparisons indicate that the United States is in no way unique in its dependence on foreign inputs to manufacturing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83956/
Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs and Funding
This report provides an overview of the Small Business Administration (SBA) business loan guaranty programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284448/
The Role of Local Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy
This report looks at the growing popularity of locally produced foods, and how that popularity and regional/local food systems are affected by the reauthorization of the 2008 farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86590/
The Proposed AT&T/T-Mobile Merger: Would It Create a Virtuous Cycle or a Vicious Cycle?
This report considers how the proposed merger between AT&T and T-Mobile would affect the public interest, including the following: benefits to the public, promotion of competition, and infrastructure considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98000/
Responsibility Determinations Under the Federal Acquisition Regulation: Legal Standards and Procedures
This report discusses the standards and procedures that federal agencies use in making responsibility determinations under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). It discusses (1) how responsibility determinations relate to other mechanisms that the government relies upon to ensure that contractors are responsible and otherwise eligible for federal contracts; (2) the performance-related and collateral standards used in making responsibility determinations; (3) the procedures for making responsibility determinations; and (4) recently enacted or proposed amendments to the standards or procedures for responsibility determinations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103060/
The Role of Local Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy
This report looks at the growing popularity of locally produced foods, and how that popularity and regional/local food systems are affected by the reauthorization of the 2008 farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87198/
Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress
Report that discusses: President Obama's trade reorganization proposal; the context of the trade reorganization debate; key issues that Congress may face related to the debate; potential policy options for Congress; and the outlook for trade reorganization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227769/
Legal Authorities Governing Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses
Congress has generally broad authority to impose requirements upon the federal procurement process, or the process whereby agencies obtain goods and services from the private sector. One of the many ways in which Congress has exercised this authority is by enacting measures intended to promote contracting and subcontracting with "small businesses" by federal agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86600/
U.S. Motor Vehicle Industry: Federal Financial Assistance and Restructuring
This report looks at TARP and federal government assistance to General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford Motors. In particular, the history of these transactions and how they were affecte by Congress, Senate, President Bush, and President Obama. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83892/
Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.S. Trade Policy
This report looks at the background of Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) in the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, which was created by Congress. It then discusses how the 112th Congress is considering legislative action to extend the TAA - including two issues: how necessary or appropriate the extension is, and whether or not three proposed bills should be voted upon separately. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93892/
Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.S. Trade Policy
This report looks at the background of Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) in the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, which was created by Congress. It then discusses how the 112th Congress is considering legislative action to extend the TAA - including two issues: how necessary or appropriate the extension is, and whether or not three proposed bills should be voted upon separately. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93893/
Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy
A look at how Congress' has been proactive in helping the economy recover after the 2008-2009 recession, as well as how it can help to keep recessions at bay in the future. Issues regards to this are typical post-war recessions, insufficient pace of private spending, and long-term debt problem. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86564/
Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy
This report looks at how Congress has been proactive in helping the economy recover after the 2008-2009 recession, as well as how it can help to keep recessions at bay in the future. Issues include typical post-war recessions, insufficient pace of private spending, and the long-term debt problem. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96676/
Challenge to the Boeing-Airbus Duopoly in Civil Aircraft: Issues for Competitiveness
This report covers a major issue for policymakers: whether the United States can sustain its preeminent position in aerospace, given the intentions of numerous foreign manufacturers to enter the small commercial jet aircraft segment by 2016. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96706/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues
As global economic competition heightens, many firms and workers face difficult adjustment problems. Congress has responded to these adjustment costs by authorizing four trade adjustment assistance (TAA) programs to assist trade-impacted workers, firms, farmers, and communities. This report discusses the TAA program for firms (TAAF). The TAAF program provides technical assistance to trade-affected firms to help them develop strategies and make other adjustments to remain competitive in the changing international economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87360/
Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview
This report provides a brief overview of The Hollings Manufacturing Partnership (MEP), which is a program of regional centers set up to assist small and medium-sized manufacturing companies use knowledge and technologies developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29502/
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
There is ongoing interest in the pace of U.S. technological advancement due to its influence on U.S. economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development. This report covers legislative activity in the past and present on this topic. It also looks at the future of Congressional action towards mandated specific technology development. As the Congress develops its appropriation priorities, the manner by which the government encourages technological progress in the private sector again may be explored and/or redefined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84059/
Long-Term Unemployment and Recessions
This report discusses the recession that began in the United States in December 2007 and officially ended in June 2009 and how this recession affected employment rates. This report analyzes the trend in long-term unemployment over the postwar period and offers explanations for its unusually high incidence during the most recent postwar recession. It compares the individual, job, and household characteristics of the long-term unemployed during the latest recession (2007-2009) with the long-term unemployed at the end of the two previous recessions (1990-1991 and 2001). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31356/
Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills
This report discusses the current process by which duty suspension bills and other provisions are introduced, reviewed by several government agencies and committee staff, made available for public comment, and finally included in omnibus miscellaneous trade and technical corrections bills (MTBs) legislation reported out by the committees of jurisdiction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29692/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues
As global economic competition heightens, many firms and workers face difficult adjustment problems. Congress has responded to these adjustment costs by authorizing four trade adjustment assistance (TAA) programs to assist trade-impacted workers, firms, farmers, and communities. This report discusses the TAA program for firms (TAAF). The TAAF program provides technical assistance to trade-affected firms to help them develop strategies and make other adjustments to remain competitive in the changing international economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33080/
Responsibility Determinations Under the Federal Acquisition Regulation: Legal Standards and Procedures
This report discusses the standards and procedures that federal agencies use in making responsibility determinations under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). It discusses (1) how responsibility determinations relate to other mechanisms that the government relies upon to ensure that contractors are responsible and otherwise eligible for federal contracts; (2) the performance-related and collateral standards used in making responsibility determinations; (3) the procedures for making responsibility determinations; and (4) recently enacted or proposed amendments to the standards or procedures for responsibility determinations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31340/
Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview
This report provides a brief overview of The Hollings Manufacturing Partnership (MEP), which is a program of regional centers set up to assist small and medium-sized manufacturing companies use knowledge and technologies developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122189/
International Corporate Tax Rate Comparisons and Policy Implications
This report focuses on the global issues relating to tax rate differentials between the United States and other countries. It provides tax rate comparisons; discusses policy implications, including the effect of a corporate rate cut on revenue, output, and national welfare; and discusses the outlook for and consequences of a revenue neutral corporate tax reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99047/
Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions
This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. It has five sections which discuss: [1] background information on unemployment compensation (UC) benefits, [2] a definition of a recession and the process of declaring a recession, [3] a summary of the legislative history of federal extensions of unemployment benefits, [4] figures examining the statistics of recessions, and [5] previous methods for financing temporary recession programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122321/
GAO Bid Protests: An Overview of Timeframes and Procedures
This report is one of two providing Congress with background on the Government Accountability Office (GAO) bid-protest process. It provides an overview of the timeframes and procedures in a GAO bid protest, including several issues enumerated in the report's introduction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99007/
“Amazon” Laws and Taxation of Internet Sales: Constitutional Analysis
This report covers ways in which states are attempting to capture taxes on Internet sales. Two basic approaches include imposing tax collection responsibilities on the retailer, and requiring remote sellers to provide tax information to the state and/or it's customers. This report covers the legality of both options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99071/
GAO Bid Protests: An Overview of Time Frames and Procedures
This report provides an overview of the time frames and procedures in a Government Accountability Office (GAO) bid protest, including (1) what issues can be protested with GAO; (2) who can file or be a party to a GAO protest; (3) the procedures for bringing and resolving GAO protests; (4) the time frames involved in GAO protests; (5) the automatic stay of contract award or performance triggered by a GAO protest, as well as the basis for agency overrides of automatic stays and judicial review of agency override determinations; (6) the basis and effects of GAO decisions; and (7) reconsideration and “appeal” of GAO decisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97969/
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