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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs
This report examines the historical development of federal small business management and technical assistance training programs; describes their current structures, operations, and budgets; and assesses their administration and oversight and the measures used to determine their effectiveness. It also discusses several bills introduced during the 111th and 112th Congresses that would have authorized changes to the SBA's management and technical assistance training programs in an effort to improve their performance and oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287966/
SBA Assistance to Small Business Startups: Client Experiences and Program Impact
This report examines small business startups' experiences with the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) management and technical assistance training programs, focusing on Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs), Women Business Centers (WBCs), and SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives); the 7(a), 504/CDC, and Microloan lending programs; and the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) venture capital program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284494/
Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs
This report examines small business startups' experiences with the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) management and technical assistance training programs -- focusing on Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs), Women Business Centers (WBCs), and SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives) -- the 7(a), 504/CDC, and Microloan lending programs; and the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) venture capital program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306530/
Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues
This report provides a historical examination of the SBA's size standards, assesses competing views concerning how to define a small business, and discusses how the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 might affect program eligibility. It also discusses H.R. 585, the Small Business Size Standard Flexibility Act of 2011, which would authorize the SBA's Office of Chief Counsel for Advocacy to approve or disapprove a size standard proposed by a federal agency if it deviates from the SBA's size standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462695/
Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues
This report provides a historical examination of the Small Business Administration's SBA size standards, and assesses competing views concerning how to define a small business. It also discusses H.R. 585, the Small Business Size Standard Flexibility Act of 2011, which would have authorized the SBA's Office of Chief Counsel for Advocacy to approve or disapprove a size standard proposed by a federal agency if it deviates from the SBA's size standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463081/
"Disadvantaged" Small Businesses: Definitions and Designations for Purposes of Federal and Federally Funded Contracting Programs
This report discusses what constitutes a "disadvantaged" small business for purposes of federal and federally funded contracting programs and how firms are certified or otherwise designated as such. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227655/
Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues
This report provides a historical examination of the Small Business Administration's (SBA) size standards, assesses competing views concerning how to define a small business, and discusses how various proposals to change the SBA's size standards -- including those adopted under the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 -- might affect program eligibility. It also discusses H.R. 585, the Small Business Size Standard Flexibility Act of 2011, which would authorize the SBA's Office of Chief Counsel for Advocacy to approve or disapprove a size standard proposed by a federal agency if it deviates from the SBA's size standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122193/
SEC Climate Change Disclosure Guidance: An Overview and Congressional Concerns
Issues regarding the Congressional appeal of the January 27, 2010 SEC-published 'Commission Guidance Regarding Disclosure Related to Climate Change', which clarifies how publicly traded corporations should apply existing SEC disclosure rules to certain mandatory financial filings with the SEC regarding the risk that climate change developments may have on their businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86636/
Small Business Legislation: Sources of Information
This report seeks to respond to inquiries from congressional staff who request information about major legislation affecting small business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822581/
Net Operating Losses: Proposed Extension of Carryback Period
This report explains the current law regarding the tax treatment of net operating losses (NOLs). In addition, this report highlights a number of policy considerations relating to the extension of the NOL carryback period. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626978/
Contract “Bundling” Under the Small Business Act: Existing Law and Proposed Amendments
This report discusses regulations from Congress on bundling, which refers to the consolidation of two or more requirements for goods or services previously provided or performed under separate smaller contracts into a solicitation for a single contract that is likely to be unsuitable for award to a small business because of its size or scope. It particularly looks at the Small Business Act and new legislation by the 112th Congress to expand the definition of bundling, strengthen the authority of the Administrator of Small Business, and requirements for reporting bundled procurements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93828/
Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview
The U.S. economy has grown increasingly interconnected with other economies around the world, a phenomenon often referred to as globalization. Over the past 20 years, multinational corporations and nations have adopted voluntary, legally enforceable, and industry-specific codes of conduct to address concerns over the economic, social, and political impact of this phenomenon. Congress will continue to play a pivotal role in addressing the large number of issues regarding internationally applied corporate codes of conduct that remain to be negotiated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33087/
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program
This report briefly discusses the Small Business Innovation Development Act (P.L. 97-219), which in 1982 established Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) programs designed to increase participation of small innovative companies in federally funded research and development (R&D). The report also discusses the program's extensions and reauthorization activity over the years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29500/
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program
This report discusses the Small Business Innovation Development Act (P.L. 97-219. The report also discusses the program's extensions and reauthorization activity over the years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227610/
Small Business Tax Relief: Proposals in the 108th Congress and Their Economic Justification
This report examines the economic arguments for and against small business tax subsidies in the context of current congressional proposals to expand them. It begins with a brief description of current federal tax subsidies for small firms, moves on to consider the principal economic arguments for and against these subsidies, and concludes with a discussion of proposals in the 108th Congress to expand small business tax subsidies and their likely economic effects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824642/
Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview
This report examines corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the part of multinational corporations in the globalized economy. The report discusses the U.S. government's role through regulation, as well as industry-specific codes of conduct. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462686/
The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues
This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227649/
Small Business Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
This report provides an overview of key provisions related to the Small Business Administration (SBA), based on appropriations in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743618/
Selected Small Business Statistics
This report gathers selected statistics on the role of small businesses in the national economy that Congress has frequently asked the Congressional Research Service (CRS) to provide. Most of the statistics are calculated by CRS from Census data. The report uses the widely accepted research definition that a small business has fewer than 500 employees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821567/
Small Business Administration and Job Creation
The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty programs, disaster loan programs, management and technical assistance training programs, and federal contracting programs. Congressional interest in these programs has increased in recent years, primarily because they are viewed as a means to stimulate economic activity, create jobs, and assist in the national economic recovery. This report examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820993/
Small Business Administration and Job Creation
The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty programs; disaster loan programs; management and technical assistance training programs; and federal contracting programs. Congressional interest in these programs has increased in recent years, primarily because they are viewed as a means to stimulate economic activity, create jobs, and assist in the national economic recovery. This report examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc819391/
Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act, H.R. 1036 and S. 659, 108th Congress: Legal Analysis
This report examines H.R. 1036, 108th Congress, as ordered to be reported by the House Committee on the Judiciary on April 3, 2003, and passed by the House without amendment on April 9, 2003. H.R. 1036, titled the “Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act,” would prohibit lawsuits, except in specified circumstances, against a manufacturer or seller of a firearm or ammunition, or a trade association, for damages resulting from the criminal or unlawful misuse of a firearm or ammunition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822520/
Small Business Administration Trade and Export Promotion Programs
This report begins with the history, role, and scope of SBA's export promotion activities, and the creation of OIT. Next, quantitative data from SBA and qualitative data from other sources are used to provide performance analysis of SBA's international programs. This report concludes with a presentation of three issues for consideration during an era where concerns of fiscal responsibility and economic recovery are high priorities for many policy makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc333003/
Small Business Administration Trade and Export Promotion Programs
This report begins with the history, role, and scope of the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) export promotion activities, and the creation of the Office of International Trade (OIT). Next, quantitative data from SBA and qualitative data from other sources are used to provide performance analysis of SBA's international programs. This report concludes with a presentation of three issues for consideration during an era where concerns of fiscal responsibility and economic recovery are high priorities for many policy makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501841/
Small Business and the 97th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8590/
Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832
Report that gives an overview of 18 U.S.C. 1832 (theft of trade secrets) and 18 U.S.C. 1831 (economic espionage). It also describes what constitutes as a stolen trade secret, and how such crimes are prosecuted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227785/
The Role of Trade Secrets in Innovation Policy
This report provides an overview of the law and policy of trade secrets. It discusses the role of trade secrets in six sections: Trade Secrets and Innovation Policy, An Overview of Trade Secret Law (Basic Principles, and Sources of Law), The Economic Espionage Act, Trade Secrets and Patents (Introduction to the Patent System, Trade Secrets and Patents Compared, and The Prior Commercial User Defense), Congressional Issues and Options, and Concluding Observations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276918/
The Corporate Income Tax System: Overview and Options for Reform
This report presents information and research on the corporate tax to help policy makers understand and evaluate arguments presented in the tax reform debate. This report first reviews the structure of the corporate income tax. Data on which companies pay the corporate tax, corporate tax revenue, and how the U.S. system compares to the rest of the world are then presented and analyzed. Next, the economic effects of the corporate tax are reviewed--including a discussion of the purpose of the corporate tax, who bears the burden of the tax, and how to evaluate alternative corporate tax systems. The report then reviews broad reform options and concludes with a comparison of specific proposals that have been offered. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491518/
The Role of Trade Secrets in Innovation Policy
This report provides an overview of the law and policy of trade secrets. It discusses the role of trade secrets in U.S. innovation policy. It then reviews the sources of trade secret law and the substantive rules that they provide. The report then provides a more detailed review of existing federal legislation that pertains to trade secrets. In its next section, the report then discusses the relationship between patent law and trade secret law. The report closes with an identification of congressional issues and options within this field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490862/
The U.S. Motor Vehicle Industry: Confronting a New Dynamic in the Global Economy
This report provides an in-depth analysis of the 2009 crisis in the U.S. auto industry and its prospects for regaining domestic and global competitiveness. It also analyzes business and policy issues arising from the unprecedented restructurings that occurred within the industry. The starting point for this analysis is June-July 2009, with General Motors Company (GM or new GM) and Chrysler Group LLC (or new Chrysler) incorporated as new companies, having selectively acquired many, but not all, assets from their predecessor companies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503593/
Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses: Issues in the 112th Congress
Congress has generally broad authority to impose requirements upon the federal procurement process, or the process whereby agencies obtain goods and services from the private sector. One of the many ways in which Congress has exercised this authority is by enacting measures intended to promote contracting and subcontracting with "small businesses" by federal agencies. This report describes and analyzes measures that Members of the 112th Congress have enacted or proposed in response to particular issues pertaining to small business contracting and subcontracting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86599/
Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival
This report looks at recent growth in the U.S. manufacturing sector, which has occurred not only as a result of the country's recovery from recession but also because a change in the nature of manufacturing work. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93885/
The Corporate Income Tax System: Overview and Options for Reform
This report (1) briefly reviews the current U.S. corporate tax system; (2) discusses economic factors that may be considered in the corporate tax reform debate; and (3) presents corporate tax reform policy options, including a brief discussion of current corporate tax reform proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122253/
Should Banking Powers Expand into Real Estate Brokerage and Management?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4670/
Should Banking Powers Expand into Real Estate Brokerage and Management?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4671/
Should Banking Powers Expand into Real Estate Brokerage and Management?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2826/
Should Banking Powers Expand into Real Estate Brokerage and Management?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2827/
Should Banking Powers Expand into Real Estate Brokerage and Management?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4668/
Should Banking Powers Expand into Real Estate Brokerage and Management?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4669/
The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past
According to the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), the U.S. economy was in a recession for 18 months from December 2007 to June 2009. It was the longest and deepest recession of the post-World War II era. This report provides information on the patterns found across past recessions since World War II to gauge whether and how this recession might be different. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29560/
Small Business Innovation Research Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1444/
Small Business Innovation Research Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs889/
Small Business Innovation Research Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2213/
The Work Opportunity Tax Credit: A Fact Sheet
The 104th Congress replaced the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC, 1978-1994) with the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) in section 1201 of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-188). This document provides basic facts about the WOTC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs559/
Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival
This report examines the current status of the manufacturing sector in the U.S., which is a subject of ongoing interest in Congress. After rebounding from the 2007-09 recession, U.S. manufacturing output has grown little since the second half of 2014. Over the same period, employment in the U.S. manufacturing sector has been flat. These trends defy expectations that forces such as higher labor costs in the emerging economies of Asia, heightened concern about the risk of disruptions to long, complex supply chains, and the development of inexpensive domestic supplies of natural gas would increase the relative attractiveness of the United States as a location for factory production. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855832/
Selected Recently Expired Business Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders")
This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and that are being considered for extension. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306513/
Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts
This report provides an overview of the payment and other protections for subcontractors on certain federal prime contracts under the Miller Act, the 1988 amendments to the Prompt Payment Act, and the Small Business Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463442/
State Small Business Credit Initiative: Implementation and Funding Issues
This report examines the State Small Business Credit Initiative (SSBCI) and its implementation, including Treasury's response to initial program audits conducted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) and Treasury's Office of Inspector General (OIG). The SSBCI provides funding, allocated by formula and distributed in one-third increments, to states, territories, and eligible municipalities (hereinafter referred to as states) to expand existing or create new state small business investment programs, including state capital access programs, collateral support programs, loan participation programs, loan guarantee programs, and venture capital programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491393/
Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts
This report provides an overview of the payment and other protections for subcontractors on certain federal prime contracts under the Miller Act, the 1988 amendments to the Prompt Payment Act, and the Small Business Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461979/
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement
This report briefly discusses the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act of 1977 (FCPA), which was intended to prevent corporate bribery of foreign officials. Criticisms of the act's operation and scope began almost immediately after its passage and have continued. This report discusses these criticisms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29622/
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