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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2012
This report discusses mechanisms used to continue appropriations in the absence of enactment of regular appropriations acts and to complete the annual appropriations process. Completion of appropriations after the beginning of each fiscal year may cause agencies to delay or cancel some planned research and development (R&D) projects and equipment acquisition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99026/
Federal Support for Academic Research
This report discusses how to address the issue of budget reductions while supporting research conducted at colleges and universities, due to the role of academic research on the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87184/
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2013
Report that looks at appropriations for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) FY 2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227764/
The Executive Budget Process: An Overview
This report outlines many of the budgetary procedures that are performed by the President, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and agencies. This report provides an overview of the development, submission, and justification of the President’s budget proposal. This report also describes how the President, OMB, and agencies execute the federal budget following the enactment of appropriations and other budgetary legislation by Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99072/
Federal Support for Academic Research
Report that discusses how to address the issue of budget reductions while supporting research conducted at colleges and universities, due to the role of academic research on the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227724/
Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges
This report reviews the intelligence appropriations process, describes various changes that have been proposed, and analyzes the issues associated with the proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227638/
The Intelligence Appropriations Process: Issues for Congress
The intelligence appropriations process remains complicated and not well understood, but intelligence is an important and sizable part of the federal budget and will undoubtedly be addressed as Congress considers various alternatives for spending. This report reviews the intelligence appropriations process, describes various changes that have been proposed, and analyzes the issues associated with the proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83993/
FY2013 Budget Documents: Internet and GPO Availability
This report provides brief descriptions of the budget volumes and related documents, together with Internet addresses, Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers, and prices for obtaining print copies of these publications. It also explains how to find the locations of government depository libraries, which can provide both printed copies for reference use and Internet access to the online versions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86597/
House Rules Changes Affecting the Congressional Budget Process Made at the Beginning of the 112th Congress
This report discusses the changes to the congressional budget process under H.Res. 5 (an agreement made January 5, 2011), which includes six changes made to the House Standing Rules as well as separate orders also affecting the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96707/
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC),1 which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. Compared to the standard or default approach of annual contracting, MYP and BBC have the potential for reducing weapon procurement costs by several percent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83977/
Military Construction: A Snapshot of the President's FY2013 Appropriations Request
This report looks at President Obama's FY2013 budget request, which included an $11.2 billion for military construction appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93925/
Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations
This report gives an overview of the status of FY2011 appropriations and funding issues for the Senate, House of Representatives, and support agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98958/
Legislative Branch: FY2013 Appropriations
The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives; Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Compliance; Congressional Budget Office; Architect of the Capitol; Library of Congress, including the Congressional Research Service; Government Printing Office; Government Accountability Office; and Open World Leadership Center. The legislative branch FY2013 budget request of $4.512 billion, which is submitted to the President by the legislative branch agencies and entities and included in the budget without change, was submitted to Congress on February 13, 2012. The request represents an increase of $205.5 million over the $4.307 billion in discretionary funding provided in Division G of the FY2012 Consolidated Appropriations Act, which was enacted on December 23, 2011. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87224/
Medicare Financing
This report provides an overview of how the Medicare program is financed, including a description of the Medicare trust funds and a summary of key findings and estimates from the 2013 Report of the Medicare Board of Trustees regarding 2012 program operations and future financial soundness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227685/
The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview
The term "budget process," when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President's budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33079/
The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool
Report that gives an overview of the "deeming resolution" (referring to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle). It includes background information and a breakdown of House and Senate action on deeming resolutions, broken down by fiscal year for the cycles when there was no agreement on a budget resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227972/
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview
President Obama's FY2013 budget submission was released on February 13, 2012. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. Spending caps and budget enforcement mechanisms established in the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011 will probably strongly affect the FY2013 budget cycle. This report may provide a starting point for discussions about spending trends and federal priorities, but it does not attempt to explain spending patterns in each policy area. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87175/
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview
This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with President Obama's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. It also includes a background on functional categories and a section discussing historical spending trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99035/
The Budget Control Act of 2011: The Effects on Spending and the Budget Deficit When the Automatic Spending Cuts Are Implemented
Following a lengthy debate over raising the debt limit, the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA; P.L. 112-25) was signed into law by President Obama on August 2, 2011. To provide context for this debate, this report discusses the effects of the BCA on spending and the deficit, assuming that the January 2013 automatic spending reductions proceed as scheduled. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86629/
DHS Headquarters Consolidation Project: Issues for Congress
This report outlines the policy considerations to be evaluated in deciding whether to continue funding the consolidated Department of Homeland Security (DHS) headquarters, and to explore some of the benefits and consequences of several possible ways forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122260/
Senate Committee Expenditures Resolutions, 113th Congress, and Funding Authorizations Since 1999
This report provides committee funding requests and authorizations for Senate committees in the 106th through 113th Congresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267866/
The Budget Reconciliation Process: Timing of Legislative Action
This report discusses the budget reconciliation process, which is an optional procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 that operates as an adjunct to the annual budget resolution process. Reconciliation is a two-stage process in which reconciliation instructions are included in the budget resolution, directing the appropriate committees to develop legislation achieving the desired budgetary outcomes, and the resultant legislation (usually incorporated into an omnibus bill) is considered under expedited procedures in the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267813/
Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Appropriations Process: FAQs Regarding Potential Legislative Changes and Effects of a Government Shutdown
This report provides background information on the Affordable Care Act (ACA). It discusses the ACA and the annual appropriations process and the potential impact of a shutdown on ACA implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227944/
Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues for Congress in FY2011, which are whether to approve, reject, or modify DOD's new KC-X competition strategy, and whether to approve, reject, or modify the Air Force's request for FY2011 research and development funding for the new KC-X program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689261/
Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues for Congress in FY2011, which are whether to approve, reject, or modify DOD's new KC-X competition strategy, and whether to approve, reject, or modify the Air Force's request for FY2011 research and development funding for the new KC-X program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689357/
The Proposed "Defund ACORN Act": Is It a "Bill of Attainder"?
This report provides background information the "Defund ACORN Act" as part of H.R. 3221, 111th Congress, the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2009. The report discusses the bills of attainder, the specificity and punishment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689382/
Stafford Act Declarations 1953-2011: Trends and Analyses, and Implications for Congress
Report that describes the declaration process of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act and the types of declarations that can be made under the Stafford Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227800/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2012 request and congressional action related to FY2012 State-Foreign Operations legislation. The Summary, “Introduction” and “Recent Developments” sections, and appendix tables in this version of the report have been updated to reflect enactment of P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87185/
MEMORANDUM: Preliminary assessment of efficiency initiatives announced by Secretary of Defense Gates on August 9, 2010
On August 9, 2010, Secretary of Defense Gates announced a number of efficiency initiatives intended to contribute to a Defense Department effort to achieve about $100 billion of savings over the next five years. The Defense Department's intent is not to reduce the defense "top line" budget, but, rather, to apply any savings to finance currently planned programs. This report contains an order-of-magnitude analysis of amounts of money currently spent in each of the major areas Secretary Gates identified for savings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83802/
The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the State Budgets of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7934/
The Federal Budget Process: A Brief Outline
In a sense the term "budget process" is a misnomer when applied to the federal government. Budgeting for the federal government is not a single process; rather it consists of a number of processes that have evolved separately and which occur with varying degrees of coordination. This report, and the accompanying flow chart, attempt to clarify the role played by each of the component parts of the budget process as well as how they operate together. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs293/
Federal Spending by Agency and Budget Function, FY2001-FY2005
This report provides federal spending data by agency and by budget function for fiscal year 2001 through fiscal year 2005. The data, ranked by size, reveal the concentrated nature of federal spending. The largest four agencies (of 51 listed) produce 83% of total outlays and the six largest (of 19) budget functions produce 86% of total outlays. Most of the spending by the largest agencies and within the largest budget functions is either mandatory spending (such as Social Security, Medicaid, and income support, among others), defense spending, or net interest spending on federal debt. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8127/
The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance
This report explains the different measures of the U.S. government debt, discusses the historical growth in the debt, identifies the current owners of the debt, presents comparisons with government debt in other countries, and examines the potential economic risks associated with a growing federal debt. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8267/
Value-Added Tax (VAT) as a Revenue Option: A Primer
This report summarizes issues, arguments, and concerns relevant to a value-added tax (VAT). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99027/
Offsets, Supplemental Appropriations, and the Disaster Relief Fund: FY1990-FY2012
This report discusses the recent history of offsetting rescissions in paying for supplemental appropriations to the Federal Emergency Management Agency's Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86620/
Budget Reconciliation Measures Enacted Into Law: 1980-2008
This report identifies and briefly summarizes the 19 budget reconciliation measures enacted into law during the period covering 1980, when reconciliation procedures first were used by both chambers, through 2008, the last year of the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700712/
Appropriations Report Language: Overview of Development, Components, and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of appropriations report language. In current practice, report language does not accompany formulaic continuing resolutions (CRs), even if funds are provided in this manner for the remainder of the fiscal year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743628/
The Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act and Circular A-76
This report begins with a brief history of Circular A-76, a review of the its key components, and an assessment of the implementation of the circular. The section on FAIR (Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act) describes how it emerged from a series of compromises, explains the statute's key provisions, and reviews the implementation process, including guidance issued by OMB. The final section addresses recent initiatives, notably the President's competitive sourcing initiative and the Commercial Activities Panel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770526/
Department of Justice (DOJ) Appropriations for FY2008 and FY2009
This report provides a discussion of funding for the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) for fiscal years 2008 and 2009, including background information, a breakdown of funding from FY2008 regular and supplemental funding, and budget requests for FY2009. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743482/
Second FY2008 Supplemental Appropriations for Military Operations, International Affairs, and Other Purposes
This report discusses supplemental appropriations for fiscal years 2008 and 2009. During its first session, the 110th Congress approved fiscal year 2008 emergency supplemental appropriations of $86.8 billion for the Department of Defense and $2.4 billion for international affairs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743525/
An Analysis of Efforts to Double Federal Funding for Physical Sciences and Engineering Research
This report provides information and analysis on the origins of the doubling effort; selected acts of Congress, other events, and reports; authorizations and appropriations; the effects of the doubling effort on the funding level and character of federal research funding for the physical sciences and engineering disciplines; and related policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743376/
How Budget Surpluses Change Federal Debt
This report discusses how budget surpluses change federal debt. The answer involves understanding what drives changes in the two components of total federal debt, debt held by the public (which includes debt held by individuals, pension funds, banks, and insurance companies, among other entities) and debt held by government accounts (almost all in federal trust funds, such as Social Security). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1441/
Department of Veterans Affairs FY2016 Appropriations: In Brief
This report discusses budget issues for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), which provides a range of benefits and services to veterans who meet certain eligibility rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795523/
U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2016 Request
This report is an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to the Middle East, including a brief historical review of foreign aid levels, a description of specific country programs, and an analysis of current foreign aid issues. The Middle East is perennially a major focus of interest as Congress exercises these powers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795572/
Congressional Action on FY2016 Appropriations Measures
This report provides information on the congressional consideration of the FY2016 regular appropriations bills and the FY2016 continuing resolution (CR). It also discusses the statutory and procedural budget enforcement framework for FY2016 appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795559/
Advance Appropriations, Forward Funding, and Advance Funding: Concepts, Practice, and Budget Process Considerations
This report examines concepts, practices, and procedural implications associated with particular delayed periods of availability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795843/
The National Debt: Who Bears Its Burden?
This report discusses the burden of a national debt and who bears that burden, which is a matter of Congressional concern since the gross national debt of the United States stands at some $5.5 trillion dollars. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795874/
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): FY2016 Appropriations
This report presents a discussion of the FY2015 enacted appropriations and requested funding for FY2016 for selected EPA programs and activities highlighted in the congressional debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795353/
Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2015 Appropriations
This report discusses the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) appropriations bill, which includes funding for the Department of the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President (EOP), the judiciary, the District of Columbia, and more than two dozen independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795405/
The Enactment of Appropriations Measures During Lame Duck Sessions
This report provides information on the enactment of regular and continuing appropriations measures in connection with lame duck sessions occurring between 1994 and 2014. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795901/