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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Paying Down the Federal Debt: A Discussion of Methods
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Federal Credit Reform: Implementation Of the Changed Budgetary Treatment of Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees
This report explains the provisions of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (FCRA), examine the implementation of credit reform including credit reform provisions of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA97), and discusses proposed modifications of credit reform. In order to achieve these objectives, it is necessary to initially discuss justifications for credit programs, federal credit concepts, and the budgetary treatment of federal credit before the FCRA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822412/
Fund for "Gifts to the United States for Reduction of the Public Debt": Current Law and Proposed Legislation
This report describes current law for the Public Debt Reduction Fund and discusses proposed legislation in order to evaluate four bills which have been introduced in the 112th Congress to add another method of making a contribution to reduce the national debt. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87193/
Should the United States Levy a Value-Added Tax for Deficit Reduction?
Report that discusses the levying of a value-added tax (VAT), a broad-based consumption tax, to potentially assist in resolving United States fiscal problems. It considers the experiences of the 29 nations with value-added taxes (VATs) in the 30-member Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which are relevant to the feasibility and operation of a possible U. S. VAT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227705/
Should the United States Levy a Value-Added Tax for Deficit Reduction?
This report discusses the levying of a value-added tax (VAT), a broad-based consumption tax, to potentially assist in resolving United States fiscal problems. It considers the experiences of the 29 nations with value-added taxes (VATs) in the 30-member Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which are relevant to the feasibility and operation of a possible U.S. VAT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98963/
Subsidy Cost of Federal Credit: Cost to the Government or Fair Value Cost?
Since the mid-1980s, budget experts have debated whether the best method of measuring the subsidy cost of federal credit (direct loans and loan guarantees) is the cost to the government or the fair value cost. This report presents a chronology of this still unresolved debate, which dates from the mid-1980s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85413/
Tax Gap: Administration Proposal to Require Information Reporting on Merchant Payment Card Reimbursements
The high current and forecast budget deficits as well as pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) procedures have resulted in congressional and executive branch interest in raising additional revenue through proposals for improved tax compliance. The Bush Administration’s FY2009 budget includes a proposal (the proposal) to require each payment card processor to inform the IRS on the net dollar amount paid to reimburse each merchant (i.e., seller) for his payment card receipts in a calendar year. Payment cards consist of both credit cards and debit cards. This report examines the proposal by describing current law, presenting the proposal contained in the FY2009 budget, describing the structure of the payment card industry, analyzing the justifications for the proposal, explaining the criticisms of the proposal, and offering concluding observations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821472/
Value-Added Tax as a New Revenue Source
This report discusses the valueadded tax (VAT), which has been frequently discussed as a full or partial replacement for the U.S. income tax system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821129/
Value-Added Tax (VAT) as a Revenue Option: A Primer
This report summarizes issues, arguments, and concerns relevant to a value-added tax (VAT). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99027/
U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
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United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
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United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
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United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
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United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
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U.N Funding, Payment of Arrears and Linkage to Reform: Legislation in the 105th Congress
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Train and Equip Program for Syria: Authorities, Funding, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current debate over various aspect of the Syria Train and Equip program. These include U.S. efforts to combat the Islamic State and other terrorist organizations in Syria and setting the conditions for a negotiated settlement to Syria's civil war. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689135/
Appropriations for FY2000: An Overview
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1080/
Appropriations for FY2000: An Overview
This report provides an overview of Congressional Research Service (CRS) products on the FY2000 appropriations and summarizes selected congressional actions on regular and supplemental appropriations, budget resolutions, budget reconciliation measures, and other selected legislation affecting appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs872/
Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a broad overview of all appropriations activity and a guide to the CRS Appropriation Product Series that provides analytical perspectives on the 13 annual FY2001 appropriations bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1089/
Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a broad overview of all appropriations activity and a guide to the CRS Appropriation Product Series that provides analytical perspectives on the 13 annual FY2001 appropriations bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1427/
Appropriations for FY2002: An Overview
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2195/
Appropriations for FY2002: An Overview
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2196/
Budget FY1999: A Chronology with Internet Access
This is a select chronology of, and a finding guide for information on, congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 1998, covering the FY1999 budget. Brief information is provided for the President’s budget, congressional budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular, continuing, supplementals, and rescissions), budget reconciliation, House and Senate votes, line-item vetoes, publications, testimony, charts, and tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs854/
Budget FY1999: A Chronology with Internet Access
This is a select chronology of, and a finding guide for information on, congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 1998, covering the FY1999 budget. Brief information is provided for the President’s budget, congressional budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular, continuing, supplementals, and rescissions), budget reconciliation, House and Senate votes, line-item vetoes, publications, testimony, charts, and tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs540/
Reconciliation Instructions in the FY2006 Budget Resolution
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Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th
The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs953/
Proposed Termination of Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F136 Alternate Engine
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Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress
This report examines the Department of Defense's (DOD's) three largest tactical aircraft modernization programs. The "Background" section provides a brief description of each program and a discussion of how tactical aircraft fit into military air operations: the missions they typically perform and how they contrast to longer range combat aircraft. The "Analysis" section examines a number of policy issues, including affordability, capability required, force structure, and defense industrial base. The paper concludes with a synopsis of congressional action on these programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462571/
V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
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V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
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V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
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V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
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V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
The V-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor aircraft, capable of vertical or short take off and landing, with forward flight like a conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The MV-22 is the Marine Corps' top aviation priority. Marine Corps leaders believe that the Osprey will provide them an unprecedented capability to quickly and decisively project power from well over the horizon. The V-22 program has been under development for over 25 years. Safety and maintenance concerns have arisen over this period. Supporters tout the V-22's potential operational capabilities relative to the helicopters it will replace. It will fly faster, farther, and with more payload than the currently used machinery. Detractors tend to emphasize the V-22's long development schedule, its three fatal accidents, and its high cost relative to the helicopters it will replace. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10465/
V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
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Air Force Air Refueling: The KC-X Aircraft Acquisition Program
This report discusses the U.S. Air Force in-flight aerial refueling aircraft program. The KC-135, which makes up the preponderance of the Air Force's tanker force, is among the Air Force's oldest aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770602/
Air Force Air Refueling: The KC-X Aircraft Acquisition Program
This report discusses the U.S. Air Force in-flight aerial refueling aircraft program. The KC-135, which makes up the preponderance of the Air Force's tanker force, is among the Air Force's oldest aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821563/
V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft
This report discusses background information on the V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft, as well as procurement and related oversight issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743351/
F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues
This report discusses the background, status, and current issues of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II JSF is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770620/
Arts and Humanities: Background on Funding
This report includes a brief description regarding funding for the arts and humanities as a perennial issue in Congress. Although arts funding represents less than 1% of the Bush Administration’s FY2006 total estimated budget authority, Congress continues to address the concern of whether federal funding is crucial to sustain arts institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7202/