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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security and the Federal Budget: What Does Social Security's Being "Off Budget" Mean?

Social Security and the Federal Budget: What Does Social Security's Being "Off Budget" Mean?

Date: July 20, 2000
Creator: Koitz, David S.
Description: This report discusses social security and its place in the federal budget. As a result of a series of laws enacted in 1983, 1985 and 1990, Social Security is considered to be "off budget" for federal budget purposes. While the meaning of this might seem obvious--that Social Security is not to be considered as part of the federal budget--many people are confused by the continued use of aggregate budget figures that include Social Security's receipts and expenditures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare: Program Reauthorizations and Recent and FY2006 Proposed Funding Levels

Child Welfare: Program Reauthorizations and Recent and FY2006 Proposed Funding Levels

Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report discusses current funding levels for child welfare programs, intended to protect children from abuse and neglect and to ensure their well-being. In FY2005 the federal government appropriated $7.8 billion for these purposes. Most of this funding is made available to states through open-ended entitlement programs or as formula grants and is authorized under Title IV-E and Title IV-B of the Social Security Act or under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2002: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2002: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture by summarizing the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report also lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
K-12 Education Programs: Appropriations Summary

K-12 Education Programs: Appropriations Summary

Date: February 14, 2005
Creator: Irwin, Paul M.
Description: This report summarizes the amount of federal appropriations for K-12 education, including total elementary and secondary funding, recent increases, and the major components counted in the K-12 total. K-12 components include: the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA), P.L. 107-110; the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998; and the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending

The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending

Date: November 22, 2006
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report briefly outlines the process for federal government spending, a multi-step process in which budget authority is enacted and obligated, and outlays are generated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues

The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues

Date: October 29, 2003
Creator: Stedman, James B.
Description: This report provides an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues that have been, or may be, of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorizaton

Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorizaton

Date: February 24, 2005
Creator: Peterman, David R. & Harrison, Glennon J.
Description: This issue brief discusses reform proposals from both the Administration and Amtrak in the 109th Congress. It addresses the appropriations requested by Amtrak, the reluctance of the Administration to provide aid, and its willingness to let Amtrak enter bankruptcy, resulting in restructuring and reform of inefficient operations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Revenue Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process

Revenue Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process

Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report discusses revenue legislation, which may include changes to individual and corporate income taxes, social insurance taxes, excise taxes, or tariffs and duties. Congressional consideration of revenue legislation is governed by various constitutional provisions and procedural rules.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
What If the National Debt Were Eliminated? Some Economic Consequences

What If the National Debt Were Eliminated? Some Economic Consequences

Date: July 14, 2000
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report examines various aspects of the national debt and explains what would happen if the debt were eliminated. The national debt currently held by the public stands at $3.4 trillion, or about 35% of gross domestic product (GDP).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Combating Terrorism: First Emergency Supplemental Appropriations - Distribution of Funds to Departments and Agencies

Combating Terrorism: First Emergency Supplemental Appropriations - Distribution of Funds to Departments and Agencies

Date: January 7, 2003
Creator: Riehl, James R.
Description: This report provides background on the 2001 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States, P.L. 107-38 (H.R. 2888) as well as the criteria for use of the funds developed by The Office of Management and Budget (OMB). It also outlines information about supplemental fund distributions in three tables.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
War on Drugs: The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign

War on Drugs: The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign

Date: July 3, 2006
Creator: Eddy, Mark
Description: This report discusses the authorization of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, a multi-media federal program to persuade America's youth not to use drugs, which expired at the end of FY2002. H.R. 2829 (passed by the House on March 13, 2006) and S. 2560 (reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee on May 25, 2006) would reauthorize the media campaign, along with the other programs run by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) during FY2007.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Functional Categories of the Federal Budget

Functional Categories of the Federal Budget

Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report presents a list of the 20 functional categories currently included in the federal budget, as well as the sub-functions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Transit Reauthorization in the 109th Congress

Transit Reauthorization in the 109th Congress

Date: June 27, 2005
Creator: Peterman, David Randall
Description: This report reviews the current structure and financing of federal transit programs, and briefly examines the financing issues and program changes proposed in the reauthorization bills for surface transportation programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Techniques for Preventing a Budget Sequester

Techniques for Preventing a Budget Sequester

Date: March 8, 2002
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report briefly describes the budget sequestration process, including the ways in which a sequester could be avoided under the regular process, and then discusses in more detail various techniques that have been used since FY1991 to prevent a sequester by intervening in the regular process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Resolution Enforcement

Budget Resolution Enforcement

Date: November 22, 2006
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report briefly discusses the annual budget resolution, which sets forth Congress's budget plan for a period of at least five fiscal years. It includes total levels of new budget authority, outlays, revenues, the deficit, and the public debt for each of the fiscal years covered. Once a budget resolution is adopted, Congress may enforce its provisions, through points of order, at several levels: the total levels of spending and revenues, the level of resources allocated to committees, and the level of resources allocated to the appropriations subcommittees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financing Issues and Economic Effects of American Wars

Financing Issues and Economic Effects of American Wars

Date: April 27, 2004
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report examines financing and economic issues in World War II, the Korean Conflict, the Vietnam Conflict, the Reagan Military Buildup, and the 1991 and 2003 wars in Iraq. It examines tax policy, non-military outlays, the budget balance, economic growth, inflation, and interest rates during these periods.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto, particularly in relation to federal spending and the budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Aid to Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues

Public Aid to Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues

Date: March 28, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Description: This report provides background on ten selected questions related to public aid for faith-based organization. Despite the ongoing controversy about charitable choice, not until the 107th Congress were there full hearings and extended debates on its constitutionality, efficacy, and public policy implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: September 20, 2004
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Date: October 31, 2006
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G. & Gilroy, Angele A.
Description: This report discusses the "digital divide," a term that has been used to characterize a gap between those Americans who use or have access to telecommunications technologies (e.g., telephones, computers, the Internet) and those who do not. It particularly discusses one important subset of the digital divide debate concerns high speed Internet access or broadband.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discretionary Spending Limits for FY2002: A Procedural Assessment

Discretionary Spending Limits for FY2002: A Procedural Assessment

Date: May 23, 2002
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report discusses discretionary spending, which is provided in annual appropriations acts, is constrained in part by limits set in the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, as amended.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense — Background and Issues for Congress

Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense — Background and Issues for Congress

Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: O’Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the global ballistic missile defense (BMD) system developed by the Department of Defense (DOD). The overall issue for Congress discussed in this report is: What should be the role of seabased systems in U.S. ballistic missile defense, and are DOD’s programs for seabased BMD capabilities appropriately structured and funded?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Jones Act: An Overview

The Jones Act: An Overview

Date: July 8, 2003
Creator: Frittelli, John F.
Description: This report discuses the Jones Act, which purpose is to ensure that the nation has a sufficient merchant marine and shipbuilding base to protect the nation’s defense and commercial interests.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department