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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Baselines and Scorekeeping in the Federal Budget Process

Baselines and Scorekeeping in the Federal Budget Process

Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: Baselines and scorekeeping are an integral part of the federal budget process, providing Congress and the President with a framework for making and enforcing budgetary decisions. A baseline serves as a benchmark for federal budget decisions. While the Office of Management and Budget (0MB) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) create different baselines, their baselines project federal spending, revenue, and budget surplus or deficit amounts that would occur if existing budget policies were left unchanged. Scorekeeping is the process by which the budgetary impact of proposed and enacted budget policies is measured; it assists Congress and the President in making and enforcing budgetary decisions
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Appropriations Bills: What are "General Provisions"?

Appropriations Bills: What are "General Provisions"?

Date: February 11, 1999
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: An annual appropriations act generally consists of two parts – paragraphs providing funding, and general provisions focusing on non-funding as well as funding issues. Discussed on this brief fact sheet are what is found in general provisions of appropriations bills.
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Budget Resolution Enforcement

Budget Resolution Enforcement

Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: The annual budget resolution sets forth Congress's budget plan for a period of at least five fiscal years. It includes total levels of spending, revenues, and the debt limit for each of the fiscal years covered.
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Consideration of the Budget Resolution

Consideration of the Budget Resolution

Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: Consideration of a concurrent budget resolution is governed by special procedures in the House and Senate. Although the procedures of each chamber differ, they serve generally to expedite consideration of the budget resolution.
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Consideration of the Budget Resolution

Consideration of the Budget Resolution

Date: May 29, 1998
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: Consideration of a concurrent budget resolution is governed by special procedures in the House and Senate. Although the procedures of each chamber differ, they serve generally to expedite consideration of the budget resolution.
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Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Between 1988 and June 1999, thirteen emergency supplemental or farm disaster acts provided a total of $17 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The vast majority of this amount has gone directly to farmers, primarily in the form of disaster payments ($12.2 billion) to any farmer suffering a significant crop loss caused by a natural disaster, and "market loss" payments ($3.1 billion) to help grain, cotton, and dairy farmers recover from low farm commodity prices. The remaining $1.7 billion has gone to a wide array of other USDA programs, including those for other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, and overseas food aid. Congress is expected to consider a multi-billion financial assistance package for farmers sometime this year.
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Earmarks and Limitations in Appropriations Bills

Earmarks and Limitations in Appropriations Bills

Date: February 11, 1999
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: An annual appropriations act is generally made up of separate paragraphs, each of which provides funding for specific agencies and programs. Generally, each paragraph corresponds to a unique account and provides appropriations for multiple projects and purposes as a single lump sum. Earmarks and limitations are two devices regularly used in annual appropriations acts to restrict, or more precisely direct, the availability of funds for specific projects or purposes of an account. Sometimes an earmark or a limitation may generate more interest or controversy than the total appropriation.
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The Entitlements Debate

The Entitlements Debate

Date: January 28, 1998
Creator: Koitz, David Stuart
Description: Federal entitlement programs make payments directly to recipients who meet eligibility criteria set by law. There are about 400 of them with Social Security being the largest. Generally, entitlement spending is not subject to control through annual appropriations, and once an entitlement program is established, its scope can be altered only by amending the law that created it.
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The Executive Budget Process Timetable

The Executive Budget Process Timetable

Date: April 8, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: The executive budget process is a complex set of activities that includes formulation of the President’s budget, interaction with Congress, and execution of the budget. Table 1 provides a timetable of the major steps in the year and a half process. The initial development of the President’s budget begins in the individual federal agencies approximately 10 months before the President submits it to Congress (17 or 18 months before the start of the fiscal year).
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Budget Reconciliation in the 105th Congress: Achieving a Balanced Budget by 2002

Budget Reconciliation in the 105th Congress: Achieving a Balanced Budget by 2002

Date: September 11, 1997
Creator: Koitz, David Stuart & Nuschler, Dawn
Description: Achievement of a balanced federal budget by 2002 was a high priority for the 105th Congress and the President. After months of negotiations and debate, starting in February 1997 and ending in July 1997, congressional leaders and the White House forged a consensus on legislation to accomplish this goal. The legislation, signed into law by President Clinton on August 5, 1997, sets “caps” on discretionary spending, constrains entitlement programs, and on balance reduces federal taxes.
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Congressional Budget Actions in 1997

Congressional Budget Actions in 1997

Date: January 8, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: In 1997, during the first session of the 105th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most of these measures will pertain to FY1998 and beyond, but some measures will make adjustments in the budget for the current fiscal year, FY1997. This issue brief describes House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements.
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Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: Budget reconciliation is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions.
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A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Date: November 13, 1996
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources "for additional reading" are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
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A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Date: October 20, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources “for additional reading” are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
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Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Date: May 30, 1998
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: Budget reconciliation is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions.
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Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions for FY1998

Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions for FY1998

Date: May 4, 1998
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Description: None
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Appropriations for FY1999: District of Columbia

Appropriations for FY1999: District of Columbia

Date: November 5, 1998
Creator: Noto, Nonna A
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia.
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A Defense Budget Primer

A Defense Budget Primer

Date: December 9, 1998
Creator: Tyszkiewicz, Mary T & Daggett, Stephen
Description: This report is a primer for those who wish to familiarize themselves with the defense budget process. The report defines basic defense budget-related terms, describes the structure of the defense budget, briefly reviews the budgeting process within the Department of Defense (DOD), and outlines the successive phases of the congressional defense budget process. It also provides a short review of the budget execution process. This report will be updated only in the event of significant changes to the defense budget process.
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Appropriations for FY2000: District of Columbia

Appropriations for FY2000: District of Columbia

Date: December 23, 1999
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia.
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The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending

The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending

Date: April 23, 1998
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: None
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The Federal Debt: Who Bears Its Burdens?

The Federal Debt: Who Bears Its Burdens?

Date: December 9, 1999
Creator: Cox, William A
Description: This report discusses the federal debt, which quintupled from FY1980 to FY1995 and went from 26% to 50% of GDP. The report examines changing ideas in regards to what segment of the population most feels the effects of growing government debt, and how its effects manifest.
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The Federal Fiscal Year

The Federal Fiscal Year

Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report discusses the federal fiscal year which is the accounting period of the federal government.
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Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Date: October 18, 1999
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report briefly discusses federal funding gaps. The routine activities of most federal agencies are funded annually by one or more of the 13 regular appropriations bills. When action on the regular appropriations bills is delayed, a continuing resolution (CR) is used to provide interim funding. During the past 48 years, CRs have been enacted for all but four fiscal years (FY1953, 1989, 1995, and 1997). For some fiscal years, a series of as many as six CRs have been enacted.
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Overview of the Executive Budget Process

Overview of the Executive Budget Process

Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: None
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