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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs
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Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th
The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs953/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
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Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
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Military Quality of Life/VA (House) and Military Construction/VA (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations
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U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean
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An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative
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Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
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Potential Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
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Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP): Status and Issues
The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) provides farmers with financial and technical assistance to plan and implement soil and water conservation practices. EQIP was enacted in 1996 and most recently amended by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Section 2301 of P.L. 107-171). It is a mandatory spending program (i.e., not subject to annual appropriations), administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). EQIP is guaranteed a total of $6.1 billion from FY2002 through FY2007 from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), making it the largest conservation cost-sharing program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8903/
Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP): Status and Issues
The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) provides farmers with financial and technical assistance to plan and implement soil and water conservation practices. EQIP was enacted in 1996 and most recently amended by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Section 2301 of P.L. 107-171). It is a mandatory spending program (i.e., not subject to annual appropriations), administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). EQIP is guaranteed a total of $6.1 billion from FY2002 through FY2007 from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), making it the largest conservation cost-sharing program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs507/
Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA): Reauthorization of Title I Job Training Programs
Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220), the country’s chief job training legislation, authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities; Job Corps; Youth Opportunity Grants; and programs for Native Americans, migrant and seasonal farmworkers, and veterans. The funding authorization for WIA programs expires on September 30,2003. On May 8, 2003, the House passed H.R. 1261, the Workforce Reinvestment and Adult Education Act of 2003. In addition to reauthorizing the Title I job training programs, the bill would also reauthorize the adult education and literacy programs and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This report focuses on provisions related to the Title I programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5097/
Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA): Reauthorization of Title I Job Training Programs
Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220), the country’s chief job training legislation, authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities; Job Corps; Youth Opportunity Grants; and programs for Native Americans, migrant and seasonal farmworkers, and veterans. The funding authorization for WIA programs expires on September 30,2003. On March 6, 2003, the Administration released its proposal for reauthorization of the Title I programs. On March 27, 2003, the House Committee on Education and the Workforce approved H.R. 1261, as amended, the Workforce Reinvestment and Adult Education Act of 2003. In addition to reauthorizing the Title I job training programs, the bill would also reauthorize the adult education and literacy programs and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This report focuses on provisions related to the Title I programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5096/
Line Item Veto Act Unconstitutional:
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Superfund Taxes or General Revenues: Future Funding Options for the Superfund Program
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Child Nutrition Issues in the 105th Congress
This report covers proposed and enacted legislative initiatives to change child nutrition programs (including the WIC program) during 1997 and 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs533/
Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies
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Budget Surpluses: Economic Effects of Debt Repayment, Tax Cuts, or Spending - An Overview
Updated projections released on July 15 by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) indicate budget surpluses rising from $63 billion (0.9% of GDP) in FY1998 to more than $100 billion (1.3% to 1.5% of GDP) from FY2002 through FY2005 and over $200 billion (1.8% to 1.9%) from FY2006 through FY2008.1 digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs552/
Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies
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Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies
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Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies
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Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies
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Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
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Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
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Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
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Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
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The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust: Background and Current Issues
The Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust is becoming a critical component of the U.S. response to humanitarian food emergencies in Africa, Iraq, and elsewhere. The Trust, as presently constituted, was enacted in the 1998 Africa Seeds of Hope Act (P.L. 105- 385). It replaced the Food Security Commodity Reserve established in 1996 and its predecessor the Food Security Wheat Reserve of 1980. This report discusses the administration’s proposals to reduce food aid’s reliance on surplus commodities and anticipated demand for emergency food aid have focused renewed attention on the Emerson Trust, which has been used four times in FY2002 and FY2003 to meet unanticipated food needs in Africa and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9251/
Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education: Background and Funding
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Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Budget Request and Plan, FY2005-FY2009
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Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Budget Request and Plan, FY2005-FY2009
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Suspension of Budget Enforcement Procedures During Hostilities Abroad
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Appropriations for FY2000: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1198/
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006
The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6833/
U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2006 Request
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State Techniques to Blunt the Governor's Item-Veto Power
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Line Item Veto Act of 1996: Lessons from the States
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Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2522/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2521/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2520/
The Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program
The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation. The DOE program is implemented in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Native American Tribes. It weatherizes an average of 70,000 dwellings per year. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption and lower their fuel bills. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2681/
Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress
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Military Quality of Life/VA (House) and Military Construction/VA (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations
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Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Budget Request and Plan, FY2005-FY2009
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Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations
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Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues
This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2161/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program: Background and Context
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Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress
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Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments
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Welfare Reform: Competitive Grants in the Welfare-to-Work Grant Program
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