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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Defense: FY2006 Authorization and Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Defense. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7815/
Defense Transformation: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress
This report addresses defense transformation from a DOD-wide perspective. The Bush Administration identified transformation as a major goal for the Department of Defense (DOD) soon after taking office and has since worked to refine and implement its plans for defense transformation. Defense transformation can be defined as large-scale, discontinuous, and possibly disruptive changes in military weapons, concepts of operations (i.e., approaches to warfighting) and organization. The issue for the 109th Congress is how to take the concept of defense transformation into account in assessing and acting on Administration proposals for DOD. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9356/
Department of Justice Reauthorization: Provisions to Improve Program Management, Compliance, and Evaluation of Justice Assistance Grants
This report opens with a description of the current makeup of OJP. It then discusses some of the issues facing OJP that have been identified by GAO and the OIG that have led to the current congressional proposal to restructure the Office. A description of the legislation that has been reported by the House Judiciary Committee is discussed and analyzed within the context of restructuring OJP. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues and questions that could be raised with respect to the legislative proposal to restructure OJP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7911/
Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 107th Congress
This issue brief provides an overview of legislation to reauthorize the ESEA, ERDDIA, and NESA. Most of it will focus on the ESEA, since it is much larger in scale. We include a summary review of relevant legislation acted upon during the 106th Congress. This issue brief will be updated regularly to reflect current legislative activity. Other issue briefs and reports, listed at the end of this brief, provide more detailed information on individual programs or types of proposals and analyses of the issues being debated with respect to them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1422/
Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs
The statute provides that states receive and distribute block grant funds and that the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) of the U.S. Department of Justice awards discretionary grants for specified activities. Allocated largely on the basis of population, block grant funds are used for personnel, equipment, training, technical assistance, and information systems to improve criminal justice systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs534/
Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress
This report gives an overview of fuel use by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and its pursuit of numerous initiatives for reducing its fuel needs and changing the mix of energy sources that it uses. The report includes an extensive background on DOD fuel use including how the DOD uses and buys fuel, challenges and risks associated with the DOD's fuel use, DOD energy initiatives, and past legislation that addressed DOD energy use; it also presents issues for Congress and legislative action to be addressed during FY2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96725/
Disadvantaged Businesses: A Review of Federal Assistance
It is the policy of the federal government to encourage the development of small disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) owned by minorities and women. SDBs are statutorily defined as small businesses that are owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias and who have limited capital and credit opportunities. This report presents an overview of the major federal programs now in existence and indicates where interested persons can obtain further information about specific programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2186/
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
This report describes the various components of the DRF, including (1) what authorities have shaped it over the years; (2) how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and (3) how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Aspects of debate concerning how disaster relief is budgeted are also highlighted and examined, and alternative budgetary options are summarized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40079/
The Budget Deficit and the Trade Deficit: What Is Their Relationship?
During the last half of the 1990s, real gross domestic investment rose as a fraction of real GDP. This resulted from the rise in U.S. productivity and the related rise in the real yield on U.S. assets. This drew additional private capital from abroad. If the twin deficits theory is correct, it has an adverse implication for the efficacy of fiscal policy as a stimulus tool. It suggests that in an environment of highly mobile international capital flows the effect of policy induced increases in the structural budget deficit (e.g., tax cuts) on short-run economic growth would be largely offset by increases in the trade deficit. The experience during both the 1980s and 1990s demonstrates that a large and growing trade deficit need not be an impediment to overall job creation even though it may have had an effect on the type of jobs that were created since it affected the composition of U.S. output. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7215/
The Budget Deficit and the Trade Deficit: What Is Their Relationship?
During the last half of the 1990s, real gross domestic investment rose as a fraction of real GDP. This resulted from the rise in U.S. productivity and the related rise in the real yield on U.S. assets. This drew additional private capital from abroad. If the twin deficits theory is correct, it has an adverse implication for the efficacy of fiscal policy as a stimulus tool. It suggests that in an environment of highly mobile international capital flows the effect of policy induced increases in the structural budget deficit (e.g., tax cuts) on short-run economic growth would be largely offset by increases in the trade deficit. The experience during both the 1980s and 1990s demonstrates that a large and growing trade deficit need not be an impediment to overall job creation even though it may have had an effect on the type of jobs that were created since it affected the composition of U.S. output. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7056/
Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options
In 1981 Congress enacted extensive changes in taxing and spending policies that supporters of these changes expected to generate sufficient revenues, despite a series of tax rate cuts, to balance the budget by FY84. After the onset of recession in early 1982, however, the Reagan Administration's projections showed widening budget deficits, which culminated in an actual FY83 deficit of $195.4 billion. Despite enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, and, more recently, the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, large deficits are expected to persist, even under continued favorable economic conditions, unless Federal taxing and spending policies are altered dramatically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9054/
Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate's Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule
The Senate’s “pay-as-you-go,” or PAYGO, rule generally prohibits the consideration of direct spending and revenue legislation that is projected to increase (or cause) an on-budget deficit in any one of three time periods: the first year, the first 5 years, and the second 5 years, covered by the most recently adopted budget resolution. Any increase in direct spending or reduction in revenues resulting from such legislation must be offset by an equivalent amount of direct spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of the two. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4024/
The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule
Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. The Byrd rule provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7099/
The Budget Reconciliation Process: The Senate's "Byrd" Rule
Reconciliation is a procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 by which Congress implements budget resolution policies affecting mainly permanent spending and revenue programs. The principal focus in the reconciliation process has been deficit reduction, but in recent years reconciliation has encompassed revenue reduction generally and spending increases in selected program areas. The Byrd rule provides six definitions of what constitutes extraneous matter for purposes of the rule (and several exceptions thereto), but the term is generally described as covering provisions unrelated to achieving the goals of the reconciliation instructions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7261/
Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs
The "digital divide" is a term used to describe a perceived gap between "information haves and have-nots," or in other words, between those Americans who use or have access to telecommunications and information technologies and those who do not. Whether or not individuals or communities fall into the "information haves" category depends on a number of factors, ranging from the presence of computers in the home, to training and education, to the availability of affordable Internet access. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40179/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration
This report briefly discusses the budget reconciliation process, which is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227629/
Conservation Reserve Program: Policy Issues for the 1995 Farm Bill
The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive crop land for 10 years (or longer under certain circumstances). Successful bidders receive annual rental payments, and cost-sharing and technical assistance to install approved plantings. The program was to enroll between 40 and 45 million acres before 1996. Program goals are to reduce erosion and excess production, and more recently, to provide other environmental benefits. To date, about 36.5 million acres have been enrolled. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs92/
Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments
This report provides background information on major instances, since 1970, when Congress has utilized funding cutoffs to compel the withdrawal of United States military forces from overseas military deployments. It also highlights key efforts by Congress to utilize the War Powers Resolution, since its enactment in 1973, to compel the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from foreign deployments. In this review, legislation expressing the “sense of the Congress” regarding U.S. military deployments is not addressed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1442/
Defense: FY2011 Authorization and Appropriations
The President's FY2011 budget request, released February 1, 2010, requested authorization of $725.9 billion in new budget authority in the FY2011 National Defense Authorization Act. In addition to $548.9 billion for the regular (non-war) operations of the Department of Defense (DOD), the authorization request included $159.3 billion for ongoing military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, bringing the total DOD request for FY2011 to $708.2 billion. The request also included $17.7 billion for defense-related activities of the Department of Energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40100/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services in Iraq and Afghanistan (for Afghanistan, beginning with LOGCAP IV) administered through the U.S. Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26254/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report will examine logistical support contracts for troop support services (also known as service contracts) in Iraq and Afghanistan, primarily administered through a smaller program, the United States Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP) and a larger program, the United States Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). This report will focus primarily on contracts involving Department of Defense (DOD) appropriated funds, although some projects involve a blending of funds from other agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29689/
The Campus-Based Financial Aid Programs: A Review and Analysis of the Allocation of Funds to Institutions and the Distribution of Aid to Students
This report describes and analyzes (a) the process through which federal funds are allocated to institutions under the campus-based programs, (b) the potential for allocating all campus-based funding according to the existing need-based formulas, and (c) the current distribution of aid to students. It will be updated to track legislative proposals addressing the campus-based allocation procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9262/
Cancer Research: Selected Federal Spending and Morbidity and Mortality Statistics
This report shows federal spending at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for research on selected cancer sites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs744/
Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History
This report discusses funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History The Administration's FY2012 budget proposes to: (1) increase funding for CDBG formula grants by 10.5% from $3.303 billion appropriated in FY2010 to $3.691 billion; (2) eliminate funding for the Neighborhood Initiative and Economic Development Initiative programs; (3) eliminate funding for Section 107 activities; (4) transfer its Sustainable Communities Initiative to a new stand-alone account; and (5) convert Section 108 loan guarantees to a fee-based program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93868/
Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History
This report discusses funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History The Administration's FY2012 budget proposes to: (1) increase funding for CDBG formula grants by 10.5% from $3.303 billion appropriated in FY2010 to $3.691 billion; (2) eliminate funding for the Neighborhood Initiative and Economic Development Initiative programs; (3) eliminate funding for Section 107 activities; (4) transfer its Sustainable Communities Initiative to a new stand-alone account; and (5) convert Section 108 loan guarantees to a fee-based program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93869/
Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History
This report discusses funding issues in the 112th Congress and recent funding history. The Administration's FY2012 budget proposes to: (1) increase funding for CDBG formula grants by 10.5% from $3.303 billion appropriated in FY2010 to $3.691 billion; (2) eliminate funding for the Neighborhood Initiative and Economic Development Initiative programs; (3) eliminate funding for Section 107 activities; (4) transfer its Sustainable Communities Initiative to a new stand alone account; and (5) convert Section 108 loan guarantees to a fee-based program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99057/
Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History
This report discusses funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History The Administration's FY2012 budget proposes to: (1) increase funding for CDBG formula grants by 10.5% from $3.303 billion appropriated in FY2010 to $3.691 billion; (2) eliminate funding for the Neighborhood Initiative and Economic Development Initiative programs; (3) eliminate funding for Section 107 activities; (4) transfer its Sustainable Communities Initiative to a new stand alone account; and (5) convert Section 108 loan guarantees to a fee-based program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40129/
Committee on the Budget in the House of Representatives: Structure and Responsibilities
Report describing the structure and responsibilities of the Committee on the Budget in the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227652/
Appropriations for FY2004: Department of Homeland Security
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Homeland Security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4609/
Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4622/
Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4621/
Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4612/
Appropriations for FY2004: Interior and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Interior Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4617/
Appropriations for FY2004: Interior and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Interior Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4618/
Appropriations for FY2004: Interior and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Interior Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4619/
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2005 Appropriations and FY2006 Request
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The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
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State Department and Related Agencies: FY2005 Appropriations and FY2006 Request
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Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations
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Government Performance and Results Act and the Appropriations Process
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Government Performance and Results Act and the Appropriations Process
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Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations
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State Department and Related Agencies FY2002 Appropriations
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State Department and Related Agencies: FY2002 Appropriations
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State Department and Related Agencies: FY2002 Appropriations
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State Department and Related Agencies FY2001 Appropriations
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First Responder Grant Formulas: The 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Other Options for Congressional Action
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The Federal Emergency Immigrant Education Program
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State Department and Related Agencies: FY2003 Appropriations
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State Department and Related Agencies: FY2003 Appropriations and FY2004 Request
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