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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87315/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses background and funding for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) program (previously known as the High-Performance Computing and Communications program, or HPPCC), which involves multiagency research and development (R&D) projects. It includes information about the program, background on federal technology funding, related activities in the 112th and 111th Congresses, and potential issues for Congress to address. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99100/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84062/
A Historical Perspective on "Hollow Forces"
This report gives general overview of the history of the origins and uses of "hollow forces" (i.e., "military forces that appear mission-ready but, upon examination, suffer from shortages of personnel and equipment, and from deficiencies in training"). Senior Department of Defense (DOD) leaders have invoked the specter of a "hollow force" to describe what could happen to the U.S. Armed Forces if significant cuts to the defense budget are enacted. As Congress will play a major role in shaping the Armed Forces both in terms of size, capabilities, and how it is equipped and trained, a nuanced understanding of how the military once became "hollow" could provide a useful context for current and anticipated legislative action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87200/
Funding Gaps and Government Shutdowns: CRS Experts
This report is a table providing names and contact information for CRS (Congressional Research Service) experts on policy concerns relating to funding gaps and the processes and effects that may be associated with a government shutdown. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99033/
FY2012 Budget Highlights for the Human Resources "Superfunction": Education, Training, Social Services, Health, Income Security, and Veterans
This CRS report highlights spending trends and key policy initiatives in the President's February budget and April Framework, and in the House-passed budget resolution, for the six functional categories of the federal budget that comprise the human resources "superfunction." The six human resources functions (and their function codes) are education, training, employment, and social services, health, Medicare, income security, social security, veterans benefits and services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40165/
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt
This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99127/
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt
This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94216/
Guantanamo Detention Center: Legislative Activity in the 111th Congress
This report analyzes relevant provisions in enacted legislation and selected pending bills relating to teh U.S. Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, a facility in which alleged enemy belligerents are detained. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29573/
Guantanamo Detention Center: Legislative Activity in the 111th Congress
This report analyzes relevant provisions in enacted legislation and selected pending bills relating to the U.S. Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, a facility in which alleged enemy belligerents are detained. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227650/
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: U.S. Contributions and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information on the Global Fund, discusses changes the Global Fund has made to improve the efficiency of its programs and address allegations of corruption, outlines U.S. funding for the Fund, and analyzes issues Congress might consider as it debates the appropriate level of support to provide the Fund. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40103/
Highlights of Three FY2013 Budget Proposals for the Human Resources “Superfunction”: Education, Training, Social Services, Health, Income Security, and Veterans
This report highlights spending trends and key policy initiatives in the President's February budget and April Framework, and in the House-passed budget resolution, for the six functional categories of the federal budget that comprise the human resources "superfunction": education, training, employment, and social services, health, Medicare, income security, social security, veterans benefits and services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98029/
Military Uniform Procurement: Questions and Answers
Military uniforms are procured through the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), an agency of the Department of Defense (DOD). DLA is DOD's largest combat support agency, providing worldwide logistics support for the United States (U.S.) military services, civilian agencies, and foreign countries. With headquarters in Fort Belvoir, Virginia, DLA operates three supply centers, one of which is the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia (DSCP), in Philadelphia, PA. DSCP is responsible for procuring nearly all of the food, clothing, and medical supplies used by the military; about 90% of the construction material used by troops in the field, as well as repair parts for aircraft, combat vehicles, and other weapons system platforms. According to DLA Troop Support's website, sales of goods exceeded $14.5 billion during 2009. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31437/
Military Uniform Procurement: Questions and Answers
Report that concerning how military uniforms are procured, legal authority for procurement, military uniform vendors, and new initiatives affecting uniform procurement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228095/
Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences
This report focuses on how major developed and emerging-market country governments, particularly the G-20 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, limit their fiscal deficits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103083/
Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview
Report that provides a brief overview of The Hollings Manufacturing Partnership (MEP), a program of regional centers set up to assist small and medium-sized manufacturing companies using knowledge and technologies developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227613/
Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy wants to modernize 84 Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years at a potential total cost of about $9.7 billion in today's dollars. The modernizations are intended to ensure that the ships can be operated cost-effectively throughout their entire intended service lives. The program poses several potential issue for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10690/
Congressional Budget Resolutions: Revisions and Adjustments
Following a brief discussion of budget resolutions and the congressional budget process, this report examines the several ways in which budget levels and other matters included in budget resolutions may be revised or adjusted, the authorities that underpin the making of such revisions and adjustments, and actual practices of the House and Senate in this regard. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7601/
Everglades Restoration: The Federal Role in Funding
In 2000, Congress approved a 30-year, $7.8 billion restoration plan, termed the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), for the Everglades ecosystem in southern Florida, and authorized an initial set of projects at a cost of $1.4 billion. This report provides information on federal appropriations for Everglades restoration, and discusses some issues related to the authorization and appropriations for restoration projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7566/
Environmental Protection Agency: Appropriations for FY2006
The 109th Congress moved funding jurisdiction for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from the Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development (VA-HUD), and Independent Agencies appropriations subcommittee to the Interior subcommittee. Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for EPA, subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7436/
Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7440/
Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Funding and Reauthorization
Community Services Block Grants (CSBG), administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), provide federal funds to states, territories and Indian tribes for distribution to local agencies to reduce poverty. Several related national activities — Community Economic Development, Rural Community Facilities, National Youth Sports, Community Food and Nutrition, Job Opportunities for Low-Income Individuals (JOLI) and Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) — also provide grants to local communities for a variety of anti-poverty initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7443/
Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7398/
Federal Emergency Management Agency Funding for Homeland Security and Other Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7022/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2005
From FY1989 through FY2005 (to date), 31 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $53.2 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs (excluding the Forest Service, which is funded annually under the Interior appropriations bill). Nearly $41 billion, or 77% of the total amount, was for FY1999-FY2005 alone. Two FY2005 supplementals have been enacted to date, the largest of which was a disaster relief package in response to the 2004 hurricanes and other natural disasters, which included $3.5 billion for agricultural losses (attached to the FY2005 Military Construction Appropriations Act (P.L. 108-324)). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7262/
Omnibus Appropriations Act: Overview of Recent Practices
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7501/
Performance Management and Budgeting in the Federal Government: Brief History and Recent Developments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7530/
The President's Management Agenda: A Brief Introduction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7531/
FY2006 Appropriations for the Department of Transportation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7532/
Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7522/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7479/
Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7458/
House Rules Changes Affecting the Congressional Budget Process in the 109th Congress (H.Res.5)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7464/
Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations and Highlights
Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. The total FY2006 EPA appropriation includes an additional $80 million in unobligated funds “rescinded” from past appropriations, as noted in the following table. P.L. 109-54 provides more funding for EPA than the Administration’s FY2006 request of $7.52 billion, but less than the FY2005 appropriation of $8.03 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7469/
Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7190/
Homeland Security Department: FY2006 Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7191/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7252/
Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7312/
Supplemental Appropriations for the 2004 Hurricanes and Other Disasters
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7888/
First Responder Grant Formulas: A Comparison of Formula Provisions in S.2845 and H.R. 10, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7852/
Wildfire Protection Funding
The severe 2000 fire season prompted a significant rise in funding for wildfire protection that has been sustained; wildfire appropriations in FY2005 were more than $2.9 billion. Most of the funds ($2.8 billion in FY2005) are to protect federal lands, with funds for reducing fuel loads, for equipment and training, for fighting fires, and for restoring burned sites. Federal funding ($98 million in FY2005) also supports state efforts to protect nonfederal lands. Some wildfire funding ($74 million in FY2005) is used for fire research, fire facilities, and programs to improve forest health. Congress continues to debate wildfire funding levels, with a growing focus on the cost of wildfire suppression. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7620/
Homeland Security Grant Formulas: A Comparison of Formula Provisions in S. 21 and H.R. 1544, 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7657/
Homeland Security Grant Formulas: A Comparison of Formula Provisions in S. 21 and H.R. 1544, 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7658/
Legislative Procedures for Adjusting the Public Debt Limit: A Brief Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7625/
The Government's Long-Term Fiscal Shortfall: How Much is Attributable to Social Security?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7627/
Speaker Hastert's Plan to Offset Spending: A Procedural Perspective
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7630/
Older Americans Act: Disaster Assistance for Older Persons After Hurricane Katrina
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7647/
Child Welfare: State Performance on Child and Family Services Reviews
This report begins with a short history of the legislation and other factors that led to the creation of the current CFSR and then briefly describes how a CFSR is conducted and what “substantial conformity” with federal child welfare policy means in the context of this review. Much has been made of the fact that no state was found to be in substantial conformity with all aspects of federal policy reviewed during the initial (FY2001-FY2004) round of the CFSRs. This report seeks to better understand that fact by looking closely at state performance on each of the performance indicators that determined compliance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7688/
Fiscal Year 2005 Homeland Security Grant Program: State Allocations and Issues for Congressional Oversight
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7540/
The Hill-Burton Uncompensated Services Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7765/