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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options

Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options

Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: Biennial budgeting is a concept that may include several variations. It may involve multiyear authorizations, two-year budget resolutions, or two-year appropriations, or some combination of the three. Most proposals incorporate all three factors. This report presents the view of proponent and critics of biennial budgeting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Enforcement Act: Its Operation Under a Budget Surplus

The Budget Enforcement Act: Its Operation Under a Budget Surplus

Date: February 11, 1998
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: The Budget Enforcement Act was enacted in 1990 in an effort to control future budgetary actions. It did this through two separate, but related, mechanisms: limits on discretionary spending, and the pay-as-you-go process to require that any legislative action on direct spending or revenues which would increase the deficit be offset. These procedures currently would apply through FY2002 (for legislation enacted before October 1, 2002, for measures affecting direct spending or revenues), regardless of whether the budget is in deficit or surplus.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: The term “budget process,” when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President’s budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules

Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules

Date: October 3, 2001
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: Under the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA), there are statutory limits (caps) on the level of federal discretionary spending, enforced by across-the-board spending cuts, known as a sequester. If, however, spending is designated as emergency by both the President and Congress, it will not trigger a sequester, because the caps are adjusted automatically by an amount equal to the emergency spending. Since the BEA was first enacted in 1990, both the House and Senate have supplemented its provisions with additional limitations in their respective rules concerning the use of emergency designations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Budget Process: A Brief Outline

The Federal Budget Process: A Brief Outline

Date: April 26, 1996
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
H.R. 853, The Comprehensive Budget Process Reform Act: Summary of Provisions

H.R. 853, The Comprehensive Budget Process Reform Act: Summary of Provisions

Date: August 25, 1999
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Date: April 15, 1999
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Date: June 3, 2003
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Date: May 19, 2005
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Budget Process Reforms in the Senate: A Brief Analysis of Senate Resolutions 4, 5, 6, and 8

Proposed Budget Process Reforms in the Senate: A Brief Analysis of Senate Resolutions 4, 5, 6, and 8

Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department