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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

Date: October 5, 2005
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: The budget report of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006-2015 (January 25, 2005), included baseline estimates (assuming current policies) for FY2005 through FY2015. Under the baseline assumptions, CBO estimated a FY2006 deficit of $295 billion (2.3% of gross domestic product [GDP]). This is smaller than CBO’s FY2005 baseline deficit estimate ($368 billion, 3.0% of GDP). CBO’s baseline estimates do not include assumptions about possible future legislation that may increase or decrease spending or receipts and therefore change the deficit. The baseline assumptions assume the continuation of current law, including that laws changing the level of future revenues or outlays will go into effect as scheduled. Hurricane Katrina’s devastation of the central Gulf Coast and additional damage done by Hurricane Rita has changed the budget outlook for fiscal year (FY) 2006.
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Taxes and Fiscal Year 2006 Budget Reconciliation: A Brief Summary

Taxes and Fiscal Year 2006 Budget Reconciliation: A Brief Summary

Date: December 8, 2005
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance

Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance

Date: January 4, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: Following years of authoritarian rule and economic sanctions, the United States and the international community agreed in the spring of 2003 that efforts should be made to introduce economic reform and democratic government to post-war Iraq. More recently, the Bush Administration has asserted a “victory” strategy composed of eight objectives, five of which are to: transition Iraq to security self-reliance, help Iraqis form a national compact for democratic government, help Iraq build government capacity and provide essential services, help Iraq strengthen its economy, and help Iraq strengthen the rule of law and promote civil rights. To meet these ends, a large-scale reconstruction assistance program has been undertaken by the United States in Iraq. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort.
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Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance

Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance

Date: March 23, 2005
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: Large-scale reconstruction assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, Congress approved on April 12, 2003, a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY2003 Supplemental Appropriation. On November 6, 2003, the President signed into law P.L. 108-106, the FY2004 Emergency Supplemental Appropriation, providing $18.4 billion for Iraq reconstruction. Contributions pledged at the October 24, 2003, Madrid donor conference by other donors amounted to roughly $3.6 billion in grant aid and as much as $13.3 billion in possible loans. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer

Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer

Date: December 27, 2005
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L
Description: None
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Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations

Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations

Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: Nowels, Larry & Epstein, Susan B.
Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and the Senate Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
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Budget Reconciliation and the PBGC

Budget Reconciliation and the PBGC

Date: November 10, 2005
Creator: Renade, Neela K
Description: The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) posted a deficit of $23.5 billion as of the latest reporting period, and the deficit is expected to grow further. Major bills introduced in the 109th Congress to reform funding rules for the defined benefit pension system and to raise PBGC premiums include H.R. 2830 and S. 1783. Neither has yet passed the full House or Senate. PBGC premiums are an important source of revenue for meeting the budget reconciliation targets. The House Budget Committee has reported out H.R. 4241, a budget reconciliation package that would raise PBGC premiums. The Senate has passed S. 1932, a budget reconciliation package that also contains PBGC premium increases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reallocation of Hurricanes Katrina Emergency Appropriations: Defense and Other Issues

Reallocation of Hurricanes Katrina Emergency Appropriations: Defense and Other Issues

Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
CALFED Bay-Delta Program: Overview of Institutional and Water Use Issues

CALFED Bay-Delta Program: Overview of Institutional and Water Use Issues

Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Sheikh, Pervaze A & Cody, Betsy A
Description: The California Bay-Delta Program (CALFED) was initiated in 1995 to resolve water resources conflicts in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Rivers Delta and San Francisco Bay (Bay-Delta) in California. The program planning effort focused on developing a plan to address three main problem areas in the Bay-Delta: ecosystem health, water quality, and water supply reliability. CALFED was authorized to receive federal funding from FY1998 to FY2000, and is now being considered for reauthorization.
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Is the U.S. Current Account Deficit Sustainable?

Is the U.S. Current Account Deficit Sustainable?

Date: December 13, 2005
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report reviews studies on the current account (CA) deficit’s sustainability. The studies suggest that a dollar depreciation of 10% to 56% could eventually be required to restore sustainability.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mentoring Programs Funded by the Federal Government Dedicated to Disadvantaged Youth: Issues and Activities

Mentoring Programs Funded by the Federal Government Dedicated to Disadvantaged Youth: Issues and Activities

Date: April 14, 2005
Creator: Fairman Cooper, Edith
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FY2005 Budget Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability

FY2005 Budget Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability

Date: September 16, 2004
Creator: Murray, Justin
Description: Every year the President submits to Congress a series of volumes that provide the text of the President’s proposed budget for the coming fiscal year. Neither the Congressional Research Service (CRS) nor the Library of Congress can provide giveaway copies of these documents. This report provides brief descriptions of these budget volumes and related documents, together with Internet addresses, Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers, and prices to obtain these publications. It also tells how to find locations of government depository libraries, which can provide both printed copies for reference use and Internet access to the text.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Transportation, the Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, the District of Columbia, the Executive Office of the President, and Independent Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations

Transportation, the Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, the District of Columbia, the Executive Office of the President, and Independent Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Peterman, David Randall & Frittelli, John F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: This report explains the different measures of the U.S. government debt, discusses the historical growth in the debt, identifies the current owners of the debt, presents comparisons with government debt in other countries, and examines the potential economic risks associated with a growing federal debt.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Redefining the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: The Goals 2000 Proposal and Reauthorization of the ESEA

Redefining the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: The Goals 2000 Proposal and Reauthorization of the ESEA

Date: May 7, 1993
Creator: The Education Section
Description: None
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Medicaid: Recent Trends in Beneficiaries and Spending

Medicaid: Recent Trends in Beneficiaries and Spending

Date: March 27, 1992
Creator: King, Kathleen; Rimkunas, Richard & Nuschler, Dawn
Description: This report discusses medicaid and recent trend is beneficiaries and spending.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Balancing the Budget and Limiting Federal Spending: A Selected Bibliography

Balancing the Budget and Limiting Federal Spending: A Selected Bibliography

Date: August 23, 1982
Creator: Chin, Felix
Description: This selected bibliography lists articles and books on various issues concerning legislation to limit Federal spending and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a balanced budget, especially economic issues. The bibliography focuses mainly on literature of recent years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislation to Limit Federal Expenditures: Past and Present

Legislation to Limit Federal Expenditures: Past and Present

Date: January 18, 1979
Creator: Fisk, John D
Description: This report examines the history of legislation to limit Federal spending through the 94th Congress, and summarizes in detail the record of the 95th Congress on such bills and amendments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of P.L. 108-446

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of P.L. 108-446

Date: May 5, 2005
Creator: Jones, Nancy L. & Apling, Richard N.
Description: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the main federal program concerning the education of children with disabilities. It authorizes state and local aid for special education and related services for children with disabilities and contains detailed due process protections for children with disabilities and their parents. On December 3, 2004, President Bush signed “the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Improvement Act” (P.L. 108-446), a major reauthorization and revision of IDEA. The new law preserves the basic structure and civil rights guarantees of IDEA but also makes significant changes in the law. Most provisions of P.L. 108-446 go into effect on July 1, 2005. This report will briefly discuss several of the major changes made by the reauthorization.
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Agriculture and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation

Agriculture and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation

Date: November 2, 2005
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: The FY2006 budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95, H.Rept. 109-62) contains reconciliation instructions that require authorizing committees to report legislation to reduce spending on mandatory programs within each committee’s jurisdiction. The resolution instructed the House and Senate Agriculture Committees to report legislation reducing spending on USDA mandatory programs by $173 million in FY2006 and $3.0 billion over five years (FY2006-FY2010). The House and Senate Agriculture Committees have completed action on their recommendations ($3.65 billion in the House and $3.0 billion in the Senate). The two measures would reduce spending on farm commodity and conservation programs in varying ways. The House measure also eliminates funding for various rural development programs and reduces food stamp spending. The Senate extends authority for a dairy income support program, which would require an offset of its projected cost. Reconciliation floor action is expected in November.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FY2006 Appropriations for State and Local Homeland Security

FY2006 Appropriations for State and Local Homeland Security

Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: This report is an overview of appropriations for selected programs of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for assistance to state and local first responders: firefighters, emergency medical personnel, emergency managers, and law enforcement officers. It covers only programs that are intended to help state and local recipients enhance their preparedness for terrorist attacks and that are administered by the Office for Domestic Preparedness (ODP), within the Office for State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness (SLGCP).
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Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress

Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress

Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: This report discusses issues for Congress regarding farm commodities. Farm commodity programs represent the heart of U.S. farm policy. The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) establishes farm income support and commodity price support programs for the 2002-2007 crop years.
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Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress

Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress

Date: March 15, 2005
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: This report discusses farm commodity programs, which represent the heart of U.S. farm policy. The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) establishes farm income support and commodity price support programs for the 2002-2007 crop years. The 109th Congress is facing several issues regarding farm commodity programs, including budget reconciliation that could reopen the farm bill, payment limits (S. 385), dairy program extension (H.R. 1260, S. 273, S. 307), international trade, and planting flexibility (S. 194).
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Federal Spending by Agency and Budget Function, FY2001-FY2005

Federal Spending by Agency and Budget Function, FY2001-FY2005

Date: January 9, 2006
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: This report provides federal spending data by agency and by budget function for fiscal year 2001 through fiscal year 2005. The data, ranked by size, reveal the concentrated nature of federal spending. The largest four agencies (of 51 listed) produce 83% of total outlays and the six largest (of 19) budget functions produce 86% of total outlays. Most of the spending by the largest agencies and within the largest budget functions is either mandatory spending (such as Social Security, Medicaid, and income support, among others), defense spending, or net interest spending on federal debt.
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