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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
FY2011 Appropriations in Budgetary Context

FY2011 Appropriations in Budgetary Context

Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew & Belasco, Amy
Description: This report compares the various funding levels that have been considered during the 112th Congress with H.R. 1473, a compromise reached just before the expiration on April 8 of the sixth continuing resolution (CR). H.R. 1473 provides discretionary budget authority to run the federal government for the remainder of FY2011, and includes both discretionary and mandatory spending reductions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: March 25, 2011
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2011 Appropriations

Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2011 Appropriations

Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Hatch, Garrett
Description: This report discusses the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) FY2011 appropriations bill, which includes funding for the Department of the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President (EOP), the judiciary, the District of Columbia, and 26 independent agencies, including the Small Business Administration and the United States Postal Service.
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Government Shutdown: Operations of the Department of Defense During a Lapse in Appropriations

Government Shutdown: Operations of the Department of Defense During a Lapse in Appropriations

Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: This report provides an overview of guidelines that have governed planning for Department of Defense (DOD) operations over the last 30 years in the event of a funding lapse. It also discusses the implications of the guidelines for a possible impending shutdown and briefly reviews what is known about current DOD planning for a shutdown.
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Medicaid Financing and Expenditures

Medicaid Financing and Expenditures

Date: July 30, 2012
Creator: Mitchell, Alison
Description: This report provides an overview of Medicaid’s financing structure, including both federal and state financing issues. The Medicaid expenditures section of the report discusses economic factors affecting Medicaid, state variability in spending, and projected program spending. Other issues that are examined include congressional proposals to turn Medicaid into a block grant program, federal deficit reduction proposals affecting Medicaid, and state fiscal conditions affecting Medicaid financing and services.
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Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations

Legislative Branch: FY2011 Appropriations

Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report gives an overview of the status of FY2011 appropriations and funding issues for the Senate, House of Representatives, and support agencies.
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The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11

Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Belasco, Amy
Description: This report analyzes war funding for the Department of Defense (DOD) and tracks funding for USAID and Veteran's Affairs (VA) Medical funding. Information on costs helps Congress to assess the FY2010 Supplemental for war costs for the Department of Defense (DOD) and State/USAID FY2011 war requests; conduct oversight of past war costs; and consider the longer-term costs implications of the buildup of troops in Afghanistan and potential problems in the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq.
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Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Date: April 6, 2011
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: This report is divided into two segments. The first section provides the most recent information on the FY2011 continuing resolution (CR). The second segment focuses on the (1) history and recent trends, including the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the past 35 years; (2) CR types by duration; (3) major substantive legislative provisions included in some CRs; and (4) funding gaps.
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Department of Defense Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background and Analysis

Department of Defense Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background and Analysis

Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe & Swain, Joyprada
Description: This report provides a detailed analysis of contractor personnel trends and contracting dollars obligated in U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), Afghanistan, and Iraq.
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Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with President Obama's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. It also includes a background on functional categories and a section discussing historical spending trends.
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Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History

Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History

Date: April 6, 2011
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: This report discusses funding issues in the 112th Congress and recent funding history. The Administration's FY2012 budget proposes to: (1) increase funding for CDBG formula grants by 10.5% from $3.303 billion appropriated in FY2010 to $3.691 billion; (2) eliminate funding for the Neighborhood Initiative and Economic Development Initiative programs; (3) eliminate funding for Section 107 activities; (4) transfer its Sustainable Communities Initiative to a new stand alone account; and (5) convert Section 108 loan guarantees to a fee-based program.
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State and Local Government Debt: An Analysis

State and Local Government Debt: An Analysis

Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: This report examines state and local government debt. It provides an overview of state and local government finances and how these governments incorporate borrowing into their budget, reports data on state and local government debt and how that debt has changed over time, and discusses different economic perspectives on the use of debt by governments and if governments are intrinsically biased toward borrowing more than is considered economically optimal. Issues related to state and local government finances, such as government pensions and health benefits, are also addressed.
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Should the United States Levy a Value-Added Tax for Deficit Reduction?

Should the United States Levy a Value-Added Tax for Deficit Reduction?

Date: March 22, 2011
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: This report discusses the levying of a value-added tax (VAT), a broad-based consumption tax, to potentially assist in resolving United States fiscal problems. It considers the experiences of the 29 nations with value-added taxes (VATs) in the 30-member Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which are relevant to the feasibility and operation of a possible U.S. VAT.
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2013 Budget and Appropriations

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2013 Budget and Appropriations

Date: July 23, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian Leonardo & Tiersky, Alex L.
Description: This report analyzes the FY2013 request and congressional action related to FY2013 State-Foreign Operations legislation. The 112th Congress is considering FY2013 international affairs funding within the context of the Budget Control Act that established discretionary spending limits for FY2012-FY2021 and contains automatic budget reductions (sequestration) on discretionary spending to begin on January 2, 2013.
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State Government Fiscal Stress and Federal Assistance

State Government Fiscal Stress and Federal Assistance

Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines the current status of state fiscal conditions and the role of federal assistance in state budgets. It begins with a brief overview of state budgeting procedures and then provides budgetary data comparing state fiscal conditions in FY2008 to FY2010. This report concludes with an assessment of the consequences current levels of state fiscal stress may have for the 112th Congress.
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Impact on the Federal Budget of Freezing Non-Security Discretionary Spending

Impact on the Federal Budget of Freezing Non-Security Discretionary Spending

Date: March 22, 2011
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Description: This report examines the impact on the federal budget of the President’s proposals, specifically the proposed freeze in non-security discretionary spending and how the freeze might change the fiscal outlook over the 10-year budget window.
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Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: July 26, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and presents potential issues for Congress concerning the Navy’s ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. The planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy’s shipbuilding plans have been matters of concern for the congressional defense committees for the past several years. Decisions that Congress makes on Navy shipbuilding programs can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
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Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: April 12, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and oversight issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2012 budget requests procurement funding for the 15th and 16th Virginia-class boats, and advance procurement (AP) funding for Virginia-class boats to be procured in future years. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
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The Technology Innovation Program

The Technology Innovation Program

Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: This report discusses the elimination of the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) - specifically a renewal of the debate over the role of the federal government in promoting commercial technology development. TIP was established in 2007 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace the Advanced Technology Program (ATP). This effort was designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation.
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Value-Added Tax (VAT) as a Revenue Option: A Primer

Value-Added Tax (VAT) as a Revenue Option: A Primer

Date: March 22, 2011
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: This report summarizes issues, arguments, and concerns relevant to a value-added tax (VAT).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Health Service (PHS) Agencies: Overview and Funding, FY2010-FY2012

Public Health Service (PHS) Agencies: Overview and Funding, FY2010-FY2012

Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen & Smith, Pamela W.
Description: This report discusses the eleven agencies that consist of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), including their purposes and funding.
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Past Government Shutdowns: Key Resources

Past Government Shutdowns: Key Resources

Date: April 8, 2011
Creator: Nagel, Jared Conrad & Murray, Justin
Description: This report provides an annotated list of historical documents and other resources related to several past government shutdowns. The report also includes links to full-text documents when available. There is limited information and guidance related to shutdowns, and it is difficult to predict what might happen in the event of one, but information about past events may help inform future deliberations.
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Coast Guard Deepwater Acquisition Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Acquisition Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: January 14, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's Deepwater acquisition programs for replacing and modernizing the service's aging fleet of deepwater-capable ships and aircraft.
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Fact Sheet: The FY2012 State and Foreign Operations Budget Request

Fact Sheet: The FY2012 State and Foreign Operations Budget Request

Date: March 9, 2011
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian Leonardo & Resler, Tamara J.
Description: This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the Obama Administration's request for International Affairs programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department