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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense (DOD) administers five environmental programs in response to various requirements under federal environmental laws. These programs include environmental cleanup, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and conservation. Additionally, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and cleaning up contaminated nuclear weapons sites. The Administration requested a total of $11.17 billion for these programs in FY2003, about $390 million more than the FY2002 funding level of $10.78 billion. Some of the ongoing issues associated with these programs are the adequacy, cost, and pace of cleanup, whether DOD and DOE adequately comply with environmental laws and regulations, and the extent to which environmental requirements encroach upon military readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2520/
The Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program
The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation. The DOE program is implemented in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Native American Tribes. It weatherizes an average of 70,000 dwellings per year. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption and lower their fuel bills. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2681/
Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress
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Military Quality of Life/VA (House) and Military Construction/VA (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations
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Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Budget Request and Plan, FY2005-FY2009
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Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations
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Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues
This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2161/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program: Background and Context
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Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress
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Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments
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Welfare Reform: Competitive Grants in the Welfare-to-Work Grant Program
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The Rural Abandoned Mine Program - A Fact Sheet
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Possible Voucher Issues
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions
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The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
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First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options
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The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
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School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
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First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options
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Arts and Humanities: Funding and Reauthorization in the 105th Congress
One of the primary vehicles for federal support of the arts and humanities is the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities, composed of the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Institute of Museum and Library Services. This report describes the issues and options raised in the 105th Congress with regard to both authorization and appropriations for support of the arts and humanities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs660/
Reading Instruction: New Federal Initiatives
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Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Budget Request and Plan, FY2005-FY2009
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6098/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6535/
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2003
The Department of Defense operates six environmental programs: cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, acceleration of cleanup at military bases designated for closure, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to ongoing military operations, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition to these activities, the Department of Energy is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste and remediating contaminated sites. This report discusses the federal laws that established these programs, describes their scope and purpose, provides a history of appropriations, indicates the President’s budget request for FY2001, examines authorization and appropriations legislation for FY2001, and discusses other relevant legislation considered in the 106th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2518/
Department of Homeland Security: Appropriations Transfer Authority
The Administration’s proposals regarding appropriations transfer authority have sparked controversy and engendered significant modifications in pending legislative proposals. This report defines appropriations transfer authority and explains its legal basis, examines recent congressional practices in this area, and assesses the current proposals regarding appropriations transfer authority for the DHS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2789/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Paperwork in Special Education
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
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Appropriations for FY2003: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2751/
Appropriations for FY2003: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2757/
Appropriations for FY2003: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2758/
Appropriations for FY2003: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2759/
Appropriations for FY2003: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2756/
Appropriations for FY2002: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2735/
Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs273/
Department of Homeland Security: Appropriations Transfer Authority
The Administration’s proposals regarding appropriations transfer authority have sparked controversy and engendered significant modifications in pending legislative proposals. This report defines appropriations transfer authority and explains its legal basis, examines recent congressional practices in this area, and assesses the current proposals regarding appropriations transfer authority for the DHS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2790/
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006
The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6755/
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006
The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6754/
U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2006 Request
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6681/
Potential Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6687/
Potential Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6688/
Appropriations for FY1999: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs664/
Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support
Most provisions of the current “farm bill,” the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (FSRIA) of 2002 (P.L. 107-171), do not expire until 2007. However, hearings on a 2007 farm bill could begin in late 2005. At that time, Congress will begin to examine farm income and commodity price support proposals that might succeed the programs due to expire in 2007. A key question likely to be asked of virtually every new proposal is how it will affect U.S. commitments under the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture (AA), which commits the United States to spend no more than $19.1 billion annually on domestic farm support programs most likely to distort trade. The AA spells out the rules for countries to determine whether their policies are potentially trade distorting, and to calculate the costs. This report describes the steps for making these determinations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6947/
Appropriations for FY1999: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs666/
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10206/
The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies
Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-104) codified the long standing policy commitment to ensure universal service in the provision of telecommunications services. The 1996 Act also expanded the concept to include, among other principles, that elementary schools and classrooms, and libraries should have access to telecommunications services for educational purposes at discounted rates. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was tasked with implementing the universal provisions of the Act and on May 7, 1997, adopted its order detailing its guidelines. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1326/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Issues Regarding "Full Funding" of Part B Grants to States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1604/
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative
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Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8466/
"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005-FY2007
The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8585/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8036/