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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3819/
Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3822/
Selected Agency Budget Justifications for FY2013
This report provides a convenient listing of online FY2013 agency budget justification submissions for all 15 executive branch departments and 9 selected independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86618/
Trends in Discretionary Spending
Discretionary spending is provided in, and controlled by, annual appropriations acts, which fund many of the routine activities commonly associated with such federal government functions as running executive branch agencies, congressional offices and agencies, and international operations of the government. Essentially all spending on federal wages and salaries is discretionary. This report discusses historical, current, and projected discretionary spending trends. It also describes how current discretionary spending trends reflect national priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31428/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and Appropriations
The annual State, Foreign Operations, and Related Agencies appropriations bill is the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U.S. international affairs budget and influences executive branch foreign policy making in general. On May 7, 2009, President Obama submitted a budget proposal for FY2010 that requests $53.9 billion for the international affairs budget. This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010. To date, this includes the introduction and committee approval of H.R. 3081, the House State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26181/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33017/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29590/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9863/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President's request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10295/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
Report that tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228044/
Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3820/
Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3823/
Social Security's Treatment Under the Federal Budget: A Summary
This report discusses the treatment of Social Security in the federal budget, which has become a major fiscal policy issue. Congressional views about what to do with budget surpluses are diverse—ranging from buying down the outstanding federal debt to cutting taxes to increasing spending. However, support for the proposition of “protecting” Social Security surpluses is substantial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1300/
Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and the Senate Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7820/
Functional Categories of the Federal Budget
This report presents a list of the 20 functional categories currently included in the federal budget, as well as the sub-functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1412/
FY2003 Budget and Related Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability
In February, the President submits to Congress a series of budget volumes which contain the President’s budget proposalsforthe upcoming fiscal year, historical data, and analytical supplements. Early in the year, the Economic Report of the President is released by the Council of Economic Advisors, and the Congressional Budget Office issues its publications, Budget and Economic Outlook and Analysis of the President’s Budget. Neither CRS nor the Library of Congress can provide giveaway copies of these documents. This report provides brief descriptions, together with Internet addresses and Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers and prices for these documents. Information is also provided on how to find locations of government depository libraries, which can provide both printed copies for reference use and Internet access. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2212/
FY2004 Budget Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability
Every year the President submits to Congress a series of budget volumes which provides the text of the President’s proposed budget for the coming fiscal year. Neither CRS nor the Library of Congress can provide giveaway copies of these documents. This report provides brief descriptions of these budget volumes and related documents, together with Internet addresses, Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers, and prices to obtain these publications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3867/
The FY2007 Budget Request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
This report discusses the FY2007 budget request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) includes $96.4 billion in budget authority. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10153/
Formulation and Content of the Budget Resolution
This report discusses the budget resolution, which provides the framework for subsequent legislative action on the annual appropriations bills, revenue measures, debt-limit legislation, reconciliation legislation (if required), and any other budgetary legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3778/
Manual on the Federal Budget Process
The purpose of this manual is to assist users of Federal budget information in understanding how the process works and how data are to be interpreted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9606/
Manual on the Federal Budget Process
The purpose of this manual is to assist users of Federal budget information in understanding how the process works and how data are to be interpreted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9597/
The National Debt: Who Bears Its Burden?
This report discusses the burden of a national debt, the view among economists, the federal budget deficits, and the financial burden that future generations will inherit, a larger privately owned capital stock and a higher level of income. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3828/
The National Debt: Who Bears Its Burden?
This report discusses the burden of a national debt, the view among economists, the federal budget deficits, and the financial burden that future generations will inherit, a larger privately owned capital stock and a higher level of income. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2191/
Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology
This report provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824767/
Social Security and the Federal Budget: What Does Social Security's Being "Off Budget" Mean?
This report discusses social security and its place in the federal budget. As a result of a series of laws enacted in 1983, 1985 and 1990, Social Security is considered to be "off budget" for federal budget purposes. While the meaning of this might seem obvious--that Social Security is not to be considered as part of the federal budget--many people are confused by the continued use of aggregate budget figures that include Social Security's receipts and expenditures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824792/
Functional Categories of the Federal Budget
This report presents a list of the 20 functional categories currently included in the federal budget, as well as the sub-functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824636/
Mandatory Spending Since 1962
This report reviews trends in mandatory spending since 1962. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) baseline projections of mandatory spending, which extend to 2018, are discussed, as well as extended baseline projections through 2082 used to explore long-term consequences of current budgetary policy. The report examines mandatory spending’s growth relative to total federal spending and to the size of the U.S. economy, and looks at how the composition of mandatory spending has changed over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc815450/
Mandatory Spending Since 1962
Mandatory spending includes federal government spending on entitlement programs as well as other budget outlays controlled by laws other than appropriation acts. Entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare make up the bulk of mandatory spending. This report looks at mandatory spending and how it has grown over time relative to total federal spending and the size of the U.S. economy. It also analyzes future mandatory spending levels and how they are projected to impact the federal budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29663/
Mandatory Spending Since 1962
This report reviews trends in mandatory spending since 1962. CBO baseline projections of mandatory spending, which extend to 2018, as well as extended baseline projections through 2082 are used to consider the long-term consequences of current mandatory spending policies.1 The report looks at mandatory spending and how it has grown over time relative to total federal spending and to the size of the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822640/
FY2017 Budget Documents: Internet and GPO Availability
This report provides brief descriptions of the budget volumes and related documents, together with Internet addresses, Government Publishing Office (GPO) stock numbers, and prices for obtaining print copies of these publications. It also explains how to find the locations of government depository libraries, which can provide both printed copies for reference use and Internet access to the online versions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847690/
Arts and Humanities: Background on Funding
This report includes a brief description regarding funding for the arts and humanities as a perennial issue in Congress. Although arts funding represents less than 1% of the Bush Administration’s FY2006 total estimated budget authority, Congress continues to address the concern of whether federal funding is crucial to sustain arts institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7202/
Arts and Humanities: Background on Funding
This report includes a brief description regarding funding for the arts and humanities as a perennial issue in Congress. Although arts funding represents less than 1% of the Bush Administration’s FY2006 total estimated budget authority, Congress continues to address the concern of whether federal funding is crucial to sustain arts institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7201/
Arts and Humanities: Background on Funding
This report includes a brief description regarding funding for the arts and humanities as a perennial issue in Congress. Although arts funding represents less than 1% of the Bush Administration’s FY2006 total estimated budget authority, Congress continues to address the concern of whether federal funding is crucial to sustain arts institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7204/
Arts and Humanities: Background on Funding
This report includes a brief description regarding funding for the arts and humanities as a perennial issue in Congress. Although arts funding represents less than 1% of the Bush Administration’s FY2006 total estimated budget authority, Congress continues to address the concern of whether federal funding is crucial to sustain arts institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7203/
Balanced Budget and Spending Limitations: Proposed Constitutional Amendments in the 97th Congress
Expenditures and revenue limitation proposals link Federal spending and taxation to some measure of economic performance, such as the rate of economic growth or percentage levels of GNP or national income. The report presents this issue brief reviews, the various approaches to balance the budget and to impose spending limitations offered as constitutional amendments’ in the 97 congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8820/
Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Defense. This report summarizes the status of defense authorization and appropriation bills, their scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743514/
Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Defense. This report summarizes the status of defense authorization and appropriation bills, their scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795361/
The Budget Control Act of 2011: Legislative Changes to the Law and Their Budgetary Effects
This report provides information on the levels of deficit reduction that would occur if the Budget Control Act's (BCA) automatic cuts are implemented as under current law, contrasted with alternative proposals offered by some Members of Congress and President Obama. It also discusses specific determinations made by the Office of Management and Budget regarding the exempt/non-exempt status of certain programs, as well as a discussion of information to be disclosed regarding the FY2013 BCA sequester impact. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284468/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
On February 1, 2010, President Obama submitted a budget proposal for FY2011 that requests $58.49 billion for the international affairs budget, a 16% increase over the enacted FY2010 funding level. This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491329/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2011 Budget and Appropriations
On February 1, 2010, President Obama submitted a budget proposal for FY2011 that requests $58.49 billion for the international affairs budget, a 16% increase over the enacted FY2010 funding level. This report analyzes the FY2011 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action related to FY2011 State-Foreign Operations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490926/
Peacekeeping/Stabilization and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on the Civilian Response/Reserve Corps and other Civilian Stabilization and Reconstruction Capabilities
This report provides background information relating to the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) in the Office of the Secretary of State. This office was created in mid-2004 as part of the Bush Administration's efforts to develop adequate civilian organizational structures, procedures, and personnel to respond effectively to post-conflict, "stabilization and reconstruction" situations, most especially in Afghanistan and Iran. This report also discusses proposals and tracks related legislative action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462221/
Reducing the Budget Deficit: Overview of Policy Issues
This report discusses why the federal government's fiscal path is unsustainable and provides an overview of proposals of selected groups that have published detailed recommendations on how to return the federal budget to a sustainable course. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463275/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2009 Appropriations
This report analyzes the FY2009 request and recent-year funding trends; it tracks major foreign policy issues Congress may consider and highlights congressional action throughout the appropriations process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463319/
Benefits for the Aged and the Federal Budget: Short- and Long-Term Projections
As the 108th Congress addresses short-term budget decisions, it may also want to consider the long-run impacts of those decisions and the major shifts in budget composition that are underway. Congress may be pressed to add new benefits in response to population aging, such as improved support for long-term care and broader Medicare drug coverage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7483/
Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options
Biennial budgeting is a concept that may include several variations. It may involve multiyear authorizations, two-year budget resolutions, or two-year appropriations, or some combination of the three. Most proposals incorporate all three factors. This report presents the view of proponent and critics of biennial budgeting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7495/
A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options
One of the most persistent political issues facing Congress in recent decades is whether to require that the budget of the United States be in balance. Although a balanced federal budget has long been held as a political ideal, the accumulation of large deficits in recent years has heightened concern that some action to require a balance between revenues and expenditures may be necessary. This report provides an overview of the issues and options that have been raised during prior consideration of proposals for a balanced budget constitutional amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96696/
Environmental Protection Agency: Highlights of the President's FY2007 Request
Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. The total FY2006 EPA appropriation includes an additional $80 million in unobligated funds “rescinded” from past appropriations, as noted in the following table. P.L. 109-54 provides more funding for EPA than the Administration’s FY2006 request of $7.52 billion, but less than the FY2005 appropriation of $8.03 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8490/
The Environmental Protection Agency's FY2002 Budget
On April 9, 2001, the President requested $7.3 billion in discretionary budget authority for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for FY2002, $512.0 million (or 7%) less than the FY2001 funding level of $7.8 billion. The request would not have continued funding of about $500 million for activities earmarked for FY2001, and contained provisions shifting more enforcement responsibilities to the states. Popular wastewater infrastructure funding, state roles, and the future of Superfund were some of the predominant topics. On July 17, the House Appropriations Committee recommended $7.545 billion,$229 million more than requested (H.R. 2620, H. Rept. 107-159). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2163/
The Environmental Protection Agency's FY2003 Budget
On April 9, 2001, the President requested $7.3 billion in discretionary budget authority for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for FY2002, $512.0 million (or 7%) less than the FY2001 funding level of $7.8 billion. The request would not have continued funding of about $500 million for activities earmarked for FY2001, and contained provisions shifting more enforcement responsibilities to the states. Popular wastewater infrastructure funding, state roles, and the future of Superfund were some of the predominant topics. On July 17, the House Appropriations Committee recommended $7.545 billion,$229 million more than requested (H.R. 2620, H. Rept. 107-159). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2172/
The Environmental Protection Agency's FY2003 Budget
On April 9, 2001, the President requested $7.3 billion in discretionary budget authority for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for FY2002, $512.0 million (or 7%) less than the FY2001 funding level of $7.8 billion. The request would not have continued funding of about $500 million for activities earmarked for FY2001, and contained provisions shifting more enforcement responsibilities to the states. Popular wastewater infrastructure funding, state roles, and the future of Superfund were some of the predominant topics. On July 17, the House Appropriations Committee recommended $7.545 billion,$229 million more than requested (H.R. 2620, H. Rept. 107-159). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2171/