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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas

Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: Apling, Richard N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Analysis of Changes Made by P.L. 108-446

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Analysis of Changes Made by P.L. 108-446

Date: January 5, 2005
Creator: Apling, Richard N & Jones, Nancy Lee
Description: This report discusses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA — 20 U.S.C. §1400 et seq.), which is both a grants statute and a civil rights statute. It provides federal funding for the education of children with disabilities and requires, as a condition for the receipt of such funds, the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). The statute also contains detailed due process provisions to ensure the provision of FAPE. Originally enacted in 1975, the act responded to increased awareness of the need to educate children with disabilities, and to judicial decisions requiring that states provide an education for children with disabilities if they provided an education for children without disabilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula

Date: December 27, 2001
Creator: Apling, Richard N.
Description: This report discusses Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which assists participating states to serve school-age children with disabilities. The state funding formula, which provides a foundation amount based on states’ FY1999 grants and allocates remaining amounts based on states’ shares of school-age children and of school-age poor children, authorizes a maximum allotment per disabled child served of 40% of the national average per pupil expenditure (APPE). Annual appropriations have never been sufficient to provide each state its maximum allotment; in FY2002, states will receive approximately 16.5% of the national APPE per disabled child served. Some advocates for the program have called upon the Congress to fully fund the formula. An estimated $18.2 billion would be required to provide states the maximum allotment allowed per disabled child served in FY2002, about 2.4 times more than the appropriation of $7.5 billion for FY2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions

Date: January 11, 2002
Creator: Apling, Richard N. & Jones, Nancy L.
Description: The Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act (IDEA) providesfundsto statesfor the education of children with disabilities. It contains detailed requirements for the receipt of these funds, including the core requirement of the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). IDEA was comprehensively revised in 1997 by P.L. 105-17, but Congress has continued to grapple with issuesrelating to the Act. This report provides a brief overview of the Act with particular attention paid to issues of recent congressional concern, such as funding and the provision of FAPE for children with disabilities found to have brought a weapon to school.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Possible Voucher Issues

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Possible Voucher Issues

Date: July 3, 2002
Creator: Apling, Richard N.; Jones, Nancy L. & Smole, David P
Description: Congress is considering reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) program (the main federal program providing special education and related services to children with disabilities). Among the options being discussed is increasing parental choice under IDEA. This report provides background on current federal choice programs and on the Florida McKay Scholarship program, which provides scholarships for children with disabilities enrolled in the state’s public schools to attend other public schools or to attend participating private schools. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues that a federal special education voucher program might raise.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses congressional restrictions on federal debt. The statutory debt limit applies to almost all federal debt. The limit applies to federal debt held by the public (that is, debt held outside the federal government itself) and to federal debt held by the government's own accounts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FY2011 Budget Proposals and Projections

FY2011 Budget Proposals and Projections

Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report provides an overview of major budget estimates and projections for the FY2011 federal budget cycle. The report presents and compares budget projections calculated by the Obama Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). In addition, the report discusses major budgetary issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FY2011 Budget Proposals and Projections

FY2011 Budget Proposals and Projections

Date: March 29, 2010
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report provides an overview of major budget estimates and projections for the FY2011 federal budget cycle. The report presents and compares budget projections calculated by the Obama Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Date: February 13, 2008
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report reviews trends in mandatory spending since 1962. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) baseline projections of mandatory spending, which extend to 2018, are discussed, as well as extended baseline projections through 2082 used to explore long-term consequences of current budgetary policy. The report examines mandatory spending’s growth relative to total federal spending and to the size of the U.S. economy, and looks at how the composition of mandatory spending has changed over time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges

Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges

Date: September 25, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses multiple challenges the government of Puerto Rico faces in the fall of 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations. The Puerto Rican government outlined a medium-term strategy to address those challenges in a fiscal plan put forth in mid-September 2015.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges: In Brief

Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges: In Brief

Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses the current state of Puerto Rico's public finances. Puerto Rico faces several fiscal hurdles in 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges: In Brief

Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges: In Brief

Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses the current state of Puerto Rico's public finances. Puerto Rico faces several fiscal hurdles in 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls

Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses how deficit finance can help governments manage their economies and how large and persistent deficits can lead to severe economic problems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Date: October 9, 2009
Creator: Austin, D. A. & Levit, Mindy R.
Description: This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, a historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Date: February 16, 2010
Creator: Austin, D. A. & Levit, Mindy R.
Description: This report looks at mandatory spending and how it has grown over time relative to total federal spending and the size of the U.S. economy. It also analyzes future mandatory spending levels and how they are projected to impact the federal budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Date: September 15, 2010
Creator: Austin, D. A. & Levit, Mindy R.
Description: Mandatory spending includes federal government spending on entitlement programs as well as other budget outlays controlled by laws other than appropriation acts. Entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare make up the bulk of mandatory spending. This report looks at mandatory spending and how it has grown over time relative to total federal spending and the size of the U.S. economy. It also analyzes future mandatory spending levels and how they are projected to impact the federal budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Date: December 17, 2008
Creator: Austin, D. A. & Levit, Mindy R.
Description: This report reviews trends in mandatory spending since 1962. CBO baseline projections of mandatory spending, which extend to 2018, as well as extended baseline projections through 2082 are used to consider the long-term consequences of current mandatory spending policies.1 The report looks at mandatory spending and how it has grown over time relative to total federal spending and to the size of the U.S. economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Control Act and Trends in Discretionary Spending

The Budget Control Act and Trends in Discretionary Spending

Date: April 2, 2014
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report mostly discusses trends in outlays (disbursements from the U.S. Treasury).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Date: May 30, 2008
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, a historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Date: January 24, 2014
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2012, preliminary estimates for FY2013 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2014 through FY2018 using data from President Obama's FY2014 budget submission that was released on April 10, 2013.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Date: April 25, 2013
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report presents figures showing trends in discretionary budget authority as a percentage of GDP by subfunction within each of 17 budget function categories, using data from President Obama's FY2014 budget submission. The report also provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority from FY1976 through FY2012, preliminary estimates for FY2013 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2014 through FY2018.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report presents figures showing trends in discretionary budget authority as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) by subfunction within each of 17 budget function categories, using data from President Obama's FY2016 budget submission. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority from FY1977 through FY2014, estimates for FY2015 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2016 through FY2020.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Date: February 14, 2012
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: President Obama's FY2013 budget submission was released on February 13, 2012. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. Spending caps and budget enforcement mechanisms established in the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011 will probably strongly affect the FY2013 budget cycle. This report may provide a starting point for discussions about spending trends and federal priorities, but it does not attempt to explain spending patterns in each policy area.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with President Obama's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. It also includes a background on functional categories and a section discussing historical spending trends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department