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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
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Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005: Defense

Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005: Defense

Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Defense. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity.
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Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: A Chronology, FY1970-FY2005

Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: A Chronology, FY1970-FY2005

Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Carter, Linwood B. & Coipuram Jr., Thomas
Description: This report is a research aid, which lists the Department of Defense (DOD) authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2).
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Davey, Michael E
Description: None
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Appropriations for FY2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture.
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The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: The term “budget process,” when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President’s budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations.
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Earmarks and Limitations in Appropriations Bills

Earmarks and Limitations in Appropriations Bills

Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: An annual appropriations act is generally made up of separate paragraphs, each of which provides funding for specific agencies and programs. Generally, each paragraph corresponds to a unique account and provides appropriations for multiple projects and purposes as a single lump sum. Earmarks and limitations are two devices regularly used in annual appropriations acts to restrict, or more precisely direct, the availability of funds for specific projects or purposes of an account. Sometimes an earmark or a limitation may generate more interest or controversy than the total appropriation.
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The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: This report describes the annual appropriations cycle from the President’s submission of his annual budget through enactment of the appropriations measures. It describes the three types of appropriations measures—regular appropriations bills, continuing resolutions, and supplemental bills. It explains the spending ceilings for appropriations bills that are associated with the budget resolution and the sequestration process, including a description of the mechanisms used to enforce the ceilings. It also explains the authorization appropriations process, which prohibits certain provisions in some of the appropriations bills.
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The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: Congress annually considers 13 or more appropriations measures, which provide funding for numerous activities, for example, national defense, education, homeland security, and crime. These measures also fund general government operations such as the administration of federal agencies. Congress has developed certain rules and practices for the consideration of appropriations measures, referred to as the congressional appropriations process. This report discusses the following aspects of this process: Annual appropriations cycle; Spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and Prohibitions against certain language in appropriations measures that violate separation of the authorization and appropriation functions into separate measures.
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Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: None
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A Presidential Item Veto

A Presidential Item Veto

Date: December 2, 2004
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary.
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