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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920-2005

Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920-2005

Date: March 9, 2005
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: This report details the evolution of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees’ subcommittee structure from the 1920s to the present.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hurricanes Katrina

Hurricanes Katrina

Date: October 5, 2005
Creator: Williams, Erin D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Impact on States of Revised Redistribution of Unspent FY2002 SCHIP Allotments

Impact on States of Revised Redistribution of Unspent FY2002 SCHIP Allotments

Date: October 3, 2005
Creator: Peterson, Chris L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Emergency Food and Shelter Program

The Emergency Food and Shelter Program

Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: The Emergency Food and Shelter (EFS) Program allocates funds to local communities to fund homeless programs including soup kitchens, food banks, shelters, and homeless prevention services. The EFS program is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and after Hurricane Katrina struck, some questions have arisen about the use of EFS program funds for Presidentially-declared disasters. This report describes how the EFS program operates through a National Board, local boards, and local recipient organizations. It further discusses the use of EFS program funds during disasters, and recent attempts to move the program from FEMA to the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Selected Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments

Selected Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments

Date: March 22, 2005
Creator: Hill, Cindy
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 23, 2005
Creator: Falk, Gene
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Omnibus Appropriations Act: Overview of Recent Practices

Omnibus Appropriations Act: Overview of Recent Practices

Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Benefits for the Aged and the Federal Budget: Short- and Long-Term Projections

Benefits for the Aged and the Federal Budget: Short- and Long-Term Projections

Date: November 14, 2002
Creator: Storey, James R
Description: As the 108th Congress addresses short-term budget decisions, it may also want to consider the long-run impacts of those decisions and the major shifts in budget composition that are underway. Congress may be pressed to add new benefits in response to population aging, such as improved support for long-term care and broader Medicare drug coverage.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options

Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options

Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: Biennial budgeting is a concept that may include several variations. It may involve multiyear authorizations, two-year budget resolutions, or two-year appropriations, or some combination of the three. Most proposals incorporate all three factors. This report presents the view of proponent and critics of biennial budgeting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process

Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process

Date: February 22, 2005
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief

Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief

Date: September 9, 2005
Creator: Lake, Jennifer E & Chite, Ralph M
Description: This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discretionary Spending: Prospects and History

Discretionary Spending: Prospects and History

Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: Federal spending has changed, both in size and composition over the last 40 years. Total federal spending is now a larger percentage of the economy (as measured by gross domestic product — GDP) than it was in 1965 (19.8% of GDP vs 17.2% of GDP). Mandatory spending (generally spending that result from laws other than appropriations acts, such as Social Security and Medicare), has grown substantially, both as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of total spending to become, today, the largest component of federal spending. Mandatory spending, without significant changes to the programs composing it, will continue growing as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of total outlays into the future.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Budget for FY2006: President's Request, Congressional Appropriations, and Related issues

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Budget for FY2006: President's Request, Congressional Appropriations, and Related issues

Date: July 13, 2005
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations and Highlights

Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations and Highlights

Date: August 16, 2005
Creator: Bearden, David M & Esworthy, Robert
Description: Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. The total FY2006 EPA appropriation includes an additional $80 million in unobligated funds “rescinded” from past appropriations, as noted in the following table. P.L. 109-54 provides more funding for EPA than the Administration’s FY2006 request of $7.52 billion, but less than the FY2005 appropriation of $8.03 billion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2006 Budget in Brief, and Key Issues for Congress

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2006 Budget in Brief, and Key Issues for Congress

Date: July 26, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S & Morgan, Daniel
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Baseline Budget Projections Under Alternative Assumptions

Baseline Budget Projections Under Alternative Assumptions

Date: February 8, 2005
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A & Labonte, Marc
Description: The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates a baseline budget based on simple rules prescribed by law. Statute requires CBO to project a baseline of revenues and outlays under current law over the next 10 years. Arguably, a “better guess” of the probable path of the federal budget under current policy might be achieved by modifying four assumptions in the CBO baseline. First, that discretionary spending will remain constant as a share of GDP rather than growing at the rate of inflation. Second, that military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan will continue and should be counted in the baseline rather than omitted. Third, that recent tax reduction will be extended rather than allowed to expire. Fourth, that the alternative minimum tax (AMT) relief will be extended rather than allowing the AMT to “take back” the reductions in regular income tax.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Rules Changes Affecting the Congressional Budget Process in the 109th Congress (H.Res.5)

House Rules Changes Affecting the Congressional Budget Process in the 109th Congress (H.Res.5)

Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Spending for Older Americans

Federal Spending for Older Americans

Date: December 21, 2004
Creator: Grady, April; Lyke, Bob & Rimkunas, Richard
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Presidential Item Veto

A Presidential Item Veto

Date: December 2, 2004
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Budget Process Reform: A Brief Overview

Federal Budget Process Reform: A Brief Overview

Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr & Keith, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Date: May 18, 2005
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions

Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: The term “budget process,” when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President’s budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s FY2006 Budget Request: Description, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s FY2006 Budget Request: Description, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S & Morgan, Daniel
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department