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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Medicare Provisions in the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA, P.L. 106-554)

Medicare Provisions in the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA, P.L. 106-554)

Date: May 24, 2001
Creator: Chaikind, Hinda Ripps; Tilson, Sibyl L; O'Sullivan, Jennifer; Merck, Carolyn L & Smith, Madeleine T
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicaid, SCHIP, and Other Health Provisions in H.R. 5661: Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000

Medicaid, SCHIP, and Other Health Provisions in H.R. 5661: Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000

Date: January 4, 2001
Creator: Hearne, Jean P; Herz, Elicia J & Baumrucker, Evelyne P
Description: This report discusses Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The report also discusses other major health provisions provisions of H.R. 5661 are incorporated, by reference into H.R. 4577, the Consolidated Appropriations Act 2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trends in Medicare Spending: Fact Sheet

Trends in Medicare Spending: Fact Sheet

Date: March 3, 2000
Creator: Chaikind, Hinda Ripps
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, FY1989-FY2001

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, FY1989-FY2001

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: From FY1989 through FY2001 (to date), nineteen appropriations or farm disaster acts have provided $38 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. Nearly $27 billion, or about 70 percent of the total amount, has been provided for FY1999-FY2001 alone. Since FY1989, the vast majority of the funds has been paid directly to farmers, primarily in the form of “market loss payments” (just under $17 billion, all since FY1999) to compensate for low farm commodity prices, and disaster payments($15.6 billion) paid to any producer who experienced a major crop loss caused by a natural disaster. The remaining $5.4 billion has funded a wide array of other USDA programs, including other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, overseas food aid, food and nutrition programs, and rural development assistance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Program Spending: What's Permitted Under the Uruguay Round Agreements

Farm Program Spending: What's Permitted Under the Uruguay Round Agreements

Date: March 13, 2001
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses farm income and commodity price support proposals that might succeed the programs due to expire in 2002. A key question being asked of virtually every new proposal is how it will affect U.S. commitments under the 1994 Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA), which commitsthe United States to spend no more than $19.1 billion annually on domestic farm supports most likely to distort trade. The URAA spells out the rules for countries to determine whether their policies are potentially trade distorting, and to calculate the costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer

Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer

Date: September 14, 2001
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report briefly discusses programs designed to provide income support, price support, and/or supply management for approximately 20 specified agricultural commodities. USDA farm support programs represent the heart of U.S. farm policy, by virtue of their longevity – they have existed since the early 1930s – and their cost.
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Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer

Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer

Date: June 20, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report briefly discusses programs designed to provide income support, price support, and/or supply management for approximately 20 specified agricultural commodities. USDA farm support programs represent the heart of U.S. farm policy, by virtue of their longevity – they have existed since the early 1930s – and their cost.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI): Research, Technology, and Related Programs

Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI): Research, Technology, and Related Programs

Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: The Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI) was the Clinton Administration's package of R&D (to develop renewable energy sources and more energy efficient technologies), targeted tax credits (to encourage purchase and deployment of more efficient technologies), and voluntary information programs (to help businesses and schools be better informed when making purchasing and operating decisions that involve energy use and emissions). This report describes the R&D, voluntary information programs, and funding aspects of the CCTI.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change: Federal Research, Technology, and Related Programs

Climate Change: Federal Research, Technology, and Related Programs

Date: October 3, 2001
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: A major focus of efforts to address possible global climate change has been on energy use, given that carbon dioxide, the major “greenhouse gas,” is added to the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. Federal programs to increase energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy resources have a history that goes back well over two decades. While many of these efforts were aimed at reducing U.S. dependence on oil imports and addressing electricity needs, they also are relevant to environmental concerns, including climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects

The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects

Date: April 6, 2001
Creator: Behrens, Carl E
Description: The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program, started in the 1980's and funded generously in the early 1990's, has completed most of its surviving projects and has not funded any new ones since 1994. However, President Bush’s FY2002 budget outline proposed spending $2 billion over 10 years on a restructured CCT program. It is not clear what kind of projects would be included in the new program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations

Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations

Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations

Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations

Date: December 4, 2002
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations

Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations

Date: May 21, 2003
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula

Date: December 27, 2001
Creator: Apling, Richard N.
Description: This report discusses Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which assists participating states to serve school-age children with disabilities. The state funding formula, which provides a foundation amount based on states’ FY1999 grants and allocates remaining amounts based on states’ shares of school-age children and of school-age poor children, authorizes a maximum allotment per disabled child served of 40% of the national average per pupil expenditure (APPE). Annual appropriations have never been sufficient to provide each state its maximum allotment; in FY2002, states will receive approximately 16.5% of the national APPE per disabled child served. Some advocates for the program have called upon the Congress to fully fund the formula. An estimated $18.2 billion would be required to provide states the maximum allotment allowed per disabled child served in FY2002, about 2.4 times more than the appropriation of $7.5 billion for FY2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Estuary Program: A Collaborative Approach to Protecting Coastal Water Quality

National Estuary Program: A Collaborative Approach to Protecting Coastal Water Quality

Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: This report discusses National Estuary Program and is based on 11 of the 28 estuaries that are currently in the National Estuary Program which represent common environmental problems along the nation’s coastline: on the Pacific Coast, the Columbia River, Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, and Santa Monica Bay; on the Atlantic Coast, Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, Long Island Sound, Narragansett Bay, and Maryland’s coastal bays (excluding Chesapeake Bay); and on the Gulf of Mexico, Charlotte Harbor, Corpus Christi Bay, and Sarasota Bay.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Functional Categories of the Federal Budget

Functional Categories of the Federal Budget

Date: March 5, 2001
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report presents a list of the 20 functional categories currently included in the federal budget, as well as the sub-functions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending

The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending

Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Date: March 5, 2001
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government’s spending, revenues, and borrowing. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Consideration of the Budget Resolution

Consideration of the Budget Resolution

Date: May 5, 2001
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: Consideration of a concurrent budget resolution is governed by special procedures in the House and Senate. Although the procedures of each chamber differ, they serve generally to expedite consideration of the budget resolution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Formulation and Content of the Budget Resolution

Formulation and Content of the Budget Resolution

Date: March 5, 2001
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: The Congressional Budget Act (CBA) of 1974 (Titles I-IX of P.L. 93-344), as amended, established the concurrent budget resolution as the centerpiece of the congressional budget process. This report discusses the budget resolution, which provides the framework for subsequent legislative action on the annual appropriations bills, revenue measures, debt-limit legislation, reconciliation legislation (if required), and any other budgetary legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Formulation and Content of the Budget Resolution

Formulation and Content of the Budget Resolution

Date: July 17, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: This report discusses the budget resolution, which provides the framework for subsequent legislative action on the annual appropriations bills, revenue measures, debt-limit legislation, reconciliation legislation (if required), and any other budgetary legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments

Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments

Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: Marketing assistance loans for the major crops were designed to facilitate orderly marketing by providing short-term financing so that farmers could pay their bills right after harvest and spread their sales over the entire marketing year. However, the persistence of very low commodity prices transformed the loan program into a major vehicle of farm income support. Marketing loan program benefits (primarily loan deficiency payments, LDPs) to farmers amounted to about $5.9 billion in 1999, and will exceed $6.5 billion in 2000. Such levels of use and high costs have revealed several administrative problems and given rise to several policy issues. Some policy makers have favored broadening the scope and enhancing the benefits of the program to achieve greater farm income support. Anticipated adverse market impacts have discouraged adoption of these proposals to date. A persistent policy issue is the payment limitation on marketing loan gains.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments

Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments

Date: December 13, 2000
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: Marketing assistance loans for the major crops were designed to facilitate orderly marketing by providing short-term financing so that farmers could pay their bills right after harvest and spread their sales over the entire marketing year. However, the persistence of very low commodity prices transformed the loan program into a major vehicle of farm income support. Marketing loan program benefits (primarily loan deficiency payments, LDPs) to farmers amounted to about $5.9 billion in 1999, and will exceed $6.5 billion in 2000. Such levels of use and high costs have revealed several administrative problems and given rise to several policy issues. Some policy makers have favored broadening the scope and enhancing the benefits of the program to achieve greater farm income support. Anticipated adverse market impacts have discouraged adoption of these proposals to date. A persistent policy issue is the payment limitation on marketing loan gains.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration

Date: March 5, 2001
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: Budget reconciliation is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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