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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2004
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Budget for Fiscal Year 2005

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2005

Date: October 12, 2004
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: The Congressional Budget Office’s (CBO) January 2004 budget report for FY2005 (the Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2005-2014) estimated the FY2005 baseline deficit at $362 billion. CBO’s report provided estimates of the costs of selected alternative policies (measured from the baseline), such as estimates of the cost of extending the tax cuts, reforming the AMT, and discretionary spending growing at various rates.
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The Budget for Fiscal Year 2005

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2005

Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: The Congressional Budget Office’s (CBO) January 2004 budget report for FY2005 (the Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2005-2014) estimated the FY2005 baseline deficit at $362 billion, not much different from that proposed by the Administration. Selected alternative policies included in the CBO report, estimates for the cost of extending the tax cuts, reforming the AMT, and letting discretionary spending grow at the rate of gross domestic product (GDP) growth, would increase the deficit, particularly in the years beyond FY2009.
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FY2005 Defense Budget: Frequently Asked Questions

FY2005 Defense Budget: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: July 12, 2004
Creator: Chamberlin, Jeffrey
Description: This report is designed to provide facts and figures about the United States defense budget in order to help answer frequently asked questions about defense spending. The answers to these questions are based on analysis of recent and historical trends in the defense budget up to and including the fiscal year (FY) 2005 budget request.
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Congressional Budget Actions in 2004

Congressional Budget Actions in 2004

Date: December 27, 2004
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: During the second session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate considered many different budgetary measures. Most of them pertained to FY2005 (referred to as the “budget year”) and beyond. In addition, some made adjustments to the budget for FY2004 (referred to as the “current year”). This report describes House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements.
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Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options

Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options

Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V
Description: Biennial budgeting is a concept that may include several variations. It may involve multiyear authorizations, two-year budget resolutions, or two-year appropriations, or some combination of the three. Most proposals incorporate all three factors. This report presents the view of proponent and critics of biennial budgeting.
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Davey, Michael E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Expenditures Compared with Outlays by Budget Function: Fact Sheet

Tax Expenditures Compared with Outlays by Budget Function: Fact Sheet

Date: January 15, 2004
Creator: Noto, Nonna A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Across-the-Board Spending Cuts in Omnibus Appropriations Acts

Across-the-Board Spending Cuts in Omnibus Appropriations Acts

Date: August 10, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report examines the use of across-the-board spending cuts in omnibus appropriations acts for FY2000-FY2004, assessing the budgetary context leading to the spending cut, recounting the legislative action on the spending cut provision, and reviewing the provision’s design and implementation.
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Date: October 15, 2004
Creator: Davey, Michael E
Description: None
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Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Date: November 16, 2004
Creator: Davey, Michael E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
FY2005 Budget Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability

FY2005 Budget Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability

Date: September 16, 2004
Creator: Murray, Justin
Description: Every year the President submits to Congress a series of volumes that provide the text of the President’s proposed budget for the coming fiscal year. Neither the Congressional Research Service (CRS) nor the Library of Congress can provide giveaway copies of these documents. This report provides brief descriptions of these budget volumes and related documents, together with Internet addresses, Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers, and prices to obtain these publications. It also tells how to find locations of government depository libraries, which can provide both printed copies for reference use and Internet access to the text.
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A Presidential Item Veto

A Presidential Item Veto

Date: December 2, 2004
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary.
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Earmarks and Limitations in Appropriations Bills

Earmarks and Limitations in Appropriations Bills

Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: An annual appropriations act is generally made up of separate paragraphs, each of which provides funding for specific agencies and programs. Generally, each paragraph corresponds to a unique account and provides appropriations for multiple projects and purposes as a single lump sum. Earmarks and limitations are two devices regularly used in annual appropriations acts to restrict, or more precisely direct, the availability of funds for specific projects or purposes of an account. Sometimes an earmark or a limitation may generate more interest or controversy than the total appropriation.
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Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Date: December 28, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert & Schick, Allen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool

The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool

Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: “Deeming resolution” is a term that refers to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle. A deeming resolution is used when the House and Senate are late in reaching final agreement on a budget resolution or fail to reach agreement altogether.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2005: District of Columbia

Appropriations for FY2005: District of Columbia

Date: December 22, 2004
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia Appropriations.
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Comparisons of U.S. and Foreign Military Spending: Data from Selected Public Sources

Comparisons of U.S. and Foreign Military Spending: Data from Selected Public Sources

Date: January 28, 2004
Creator: Chamberlin, Jeffrey
Description: This report lists and compares military expenditures of the United States and foreign nations using two sources: the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies’ (IISS) The Military Balance, and the U.S. State Department’s World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (WMEAT). Although the IISS and the U.S. State Department aim to provide figures that are as consistent and accurate as possible, cross-national comparisons of defense spending are inherently imperfect. Available sets of figures are useful, but often do not correspond with one another for a variety of reasons. This report provides two sets of figures from widely recognized sources in order to offer Congress a sample of the data published on this topic.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

Date: September 9, 2004
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: This report explains the different measures of the U.S. government debt, discusses the historical growth in the debt, identifies the current owners of the debt, presents comparisons with the public debt in other countries, and examines the potential economic risks associated with a growing federal debt.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Date: November 30, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: This report is divided into two segments. The first segment provides the most recent developments regarding the FY2005 continuing resolutions (CRs). The second segment provides information on the history of CRs; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted.
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Appropriations for FY2005: Interior and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2005: Interior and Related Agencies

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Vincent, Carol H. & Boren, Susan
Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year, regarding the Department of the Interior and related agencies. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Interior and Related Agencies. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
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Aviation Security: Issues Before Congress Since September 11, 2001

Aviation Security: Issues Before Congress Since September 11, 2001

Date: February 6, 2004
Creator: Elias, Bartholomew
Description: The events of September 11, 2001 heightened concerns regarding aviation security in the United States. The ensuing debate in Congress focused on the degree of federal involvement needed to improve aviation security and restore public confidence in air travel. The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA, P.L. 107-71, 115 Stat. 597) established the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and contained provisions establishing a federal screener workforce and requiring screening of checked baggage using explosive detection systems. In November 2004, airports will be eligible to opt out of the federal security screening program and a provision of P.L. 107-296 preserving TSA in its present form will expire allowing DHS to restructure the TSA if it so chooses, although no such plan has been revealed to date. During the second session of the 108th Congress, oversight of TSA’s plans for implementing the security screening opt-out program will likely be of considerable interest as will any plans to restructure the TSA.
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The U.S. Intelligence Budget: A Basic Overview

The U.S. Intelligence Budget: A Basic Overview

Date: October 4, 2004
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: None
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The Mid-Session Review of the President’s Budget: Timing Issues

The Mid-Session Review of the President’s Budget: Timing Issues

Date: August 2, 2004
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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