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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Congressional Budget Actions in 2003
During the first session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate will consider many different budgetary measures. Most measures pertain to fiscal year (FY) 2004 (which began on October 1, 2003) and beyond. Some also pertain to the budget for FY2003. As the session progresses, this report will describe House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4013/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
For FY2001, twenty-one continuing resolutions became law. These measures extended funding for the outstanding FY2001 regular appropriations bills from October 1, 2000, through midnight, December 21, 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1082/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1081/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report is divided into two segments. The first segment provides the most recent developments and content of the FY2005 continuing resolutions. The second segment provides information on the history of CRs; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 35 years; the types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when funding (or budget authority2) has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2187/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2188/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2189/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report is divided into two segments. The first segment provides the most recent developments and content of the FY2005 continuing resolutions. The second segment provides information on the history of CRs; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 35 years; the types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when funding (or budget authority2) has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6137/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3825/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3824/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report is divided into two segments. The first segment provides the most recent developments and content of the FY2005 continuing resolutions. The second segment provides information on the history of CRs; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 35 years; the types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when funding (or budget authority2) has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3826/
The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool
"Deeming resolution" is a term that refers to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle. A deeming resolution is used when the House and Senate are late in reaching final agreement on a budget resolution or fail to reach agreement altogether. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85442/
The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool
“Deeming resolution” is a term that refers to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle. A deeming resolution is used when the House and Senate are late in reaching final agreement on a budget resolution or fail to reach agreement altogether. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9253/
The “Deeming Resolution”: A Budget Enforcement Tool
This report gives an overview of the "deeming resolution" (referring to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle). It includes background information and a breakdown of House and Senate action on deeming resolutions, broken down by fiscal year for the cycles when there was no agreement on a budget resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98046/
The Debt Limit: The Need to Raise It After Four Years of Surpluses
Increases in total federal debt are driven by government deficits (which increase debt held by the public) and by the surpluses credited to (and federal accounting for) debt-holding federal accounts, mostly federal trust funds such as the Social Security, Medicare, Transportation, and Civil Service trust funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2211/
The Debt Limit: The Need to Raise It After Four Years of Surpluses
Increases in total federal debt are driven by government deficits (which increase debt held by the public) and by the surpluses credited to (and federal accounting for) debt-holding federal accounts, mostly federal trust funds such as the Social Security, Medicare, Transportation, and Civil Service trust funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3865/
The Debt Limit: Why It Rose After Four Years of Surpluses and the Debt Changes Since
In December 2002, the Administration began warning Congress that the debt limit ($6.4 trillion) would be reached in the first half of 2002. As the limit was approached in February 2003, the Administration resorted to suspension of certain internal fund investments to avoid a default. The adoption of the budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95; April 11, 2003) for FY2004 generated legislation (H.J.Res. 51) — deemed passed by the House — that would increase the debt limit to $7.4 trillion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3866/
District of Columbia: FY2006 Appropriations
This report is a guide to the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on the District of Columbia and the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Transportation, the Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, the District of Columbia, the Executive Office of the President, and Independent Agencies. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8044/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration
Budget reconciliation is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs865/
A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process
This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources "for additional reading" are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs295/
A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process
This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources “for additional reading” are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs390/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution
The FY2006 budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95), which was agreed to by the House and Senate on April 28, 2005, included reconciliation instructions for: (1) an omnibus bill to reduce mandatory outlays by about $35 billion over a five-year period, covering FY2006-FY2010; (2) a bill to reduce revenues by $70 billion over the same period; and (3) a bill to increase the limit on the public debt by $781 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9405/
Budget Resolution Enforcement
The annual budget resolution sets forth Congress's budget plan for a period of at least five fiscal years. It includes total levels of spending, revenues, and the debt limit for each of the fiscal years covered. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1417/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration
Budget reconciliation is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1416/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration
Budget reconciliation is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs551/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration
Budget reconciliation is an optional two-step process Congress may use to assure compliance with the direct spending, revenue, and debt-limit levels set forth in budget resolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3779/
Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005
The budget reconciliation process is a two-step process involving the inclusion of reconciliation instructions in the budget resolution, which direct committees to develop legislation achieving the desired budgetary outcomes, and the subsequent consideration of the resultant reconciliation legislation under expedited procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8050/
Budget Reconciliation: Legislation in 2005
The budget reconciliation process is one of the chief tools used by Congress during the past quarter-century to implement major changes in budget policy. Following a brief overview of the budget reconciliation process and the current budget policy context, this report provides information on the consideration of budget reconciliation legislation in 2005, during the first session of the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7919/
Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations
This report will track and describe actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2013 appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) accounts. It also provides an overview of FY2012 appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual appropriation for CJS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86616/
The Debt Limit
Congress last raised the debt limit, to $5.95 trillion, in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-33; on August 5, 1997). At that time, the increase was deemed sufficient for the government's borrowing needs into December 1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1424/
The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006
The July 2005 mid-year budget report from the Administration had an improved deficit outlook through FY2010, while CBO’s August 2005 mid-year report included a somewhat worsened baseline deficit outlook. Congress passed three continuing resolutions (CRs) on appropriations during the fall and early winter to fund otherwise unfunded activities. It needed the time to complete action on the regular appropriation bills for FY2006. The last two cleared Congress on December 21, almost three months after the start of FY2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9373/
Appropriations for FY2004: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3856/
The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance
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Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the current status of FY2015 legislative branch appropriations. The report then addresses the FY2015 budget requests, hearings, and funding issues for individual legislative branch agencies and entities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689369/
FY2014 Appropriations: District of Columbia
This report discusses the FY2014 budget request, general provisions and key policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267879/
Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments
Marketing assistance loans for the major crops were designed to facilitate orderly marketing by providing short-term financing so that farmers could pay their bills right after harvest and spread their sales over the entire marketing year. However, the persistence of very low commodity prices transformed the loan program into a major vehicle of farm income support. Marketing loan program benefits (primarily loan deficiency payments, LDPs) to farmers amounted to about $5.9 billion in 1999, and will exceed $6.5 billion in 2000. Such levels of use and high costs have revealed several administrative problems and given rise to several policy issues. Some policy makers have favored broadening the scope and enhancing the benefits of the program to achieve greater farm income support. Anticipated adverse market impacts have discouraged adoption of these proposals to date. A persistent policy issue is the payment limitation on marketing loan gains. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1074/
Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments
Marketing assistance loans for the major crops were designed to facilitate orderly marketing by providing short-term financing so that farmers could pay their bills right after harvest and spread their sales over the entire marketing year. However, the persistence of very low commodity prices transformed the loan program into a major vehicle of farm income support. Marketing loan program benefits (primarily loan deficiency payments, LDPs) to farmers amounted to about $5.9 billion in 1999, and will exceed $6.5 billion in 2000. Such levels of use and high costs have revealed several administrative problems and given rise to several policy issues. Some policy makers have favored broadening the scope and enhancing the benefits of the program to achieve greater farm income support. Anticipated adverse market impacts have discouraged adoption of these proposals to date. A persistent policy issue is the payment limitation on marketing loan gains. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1073/
Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1088/
Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1090/
Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions for FY1998
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Appropriations for FY1999: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs542/
Appropriations for FY2005: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8007/
Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorization
Amtrak was created by Congress in 1970 to provide intercity passenger railroad service. Without a yearly federal grant to cover operating losses, Amtrak would not survive as presently configured. This issue brief discusses reform proposals from both the Administration and Amtrak in the 109th Congress. It addresses the appropriations requested by Amtrak, the reluctance of the Administration to provide aid, and its willingness to let Amtrak enter bankruptcy, resulting in restructuring and reform of inefficient operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7251/
Comparisons of U.S. and Foreign Military Spending: Data from Selected Public Sources
This report lists and compares military expenditures of the United States and foreign nations using two sources: the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies’ (IISS) The Military Balance, and the U.S. State Department’s World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (WMEAT). Although the IISS and the U.S. State Department aim to provide figures that are as consistent and accurate as possible, cross-national comparisons of defense spending are inherently imperfect. Available sets of figures are useful, but often do not correspond with one another for a variety of reasons. This report provides two sets of figures from widely recognized sources in order to offer Congress a sample of the data published on this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5807/
Defense Budget for FY2002: An Overview of Bush Administration Plans and Key Issues for Congress
Details of Bush Administration plans for the defense budget have been on hold for several months as senior officials have undertaken a reassessment of defense policy known as the “National Defense Review.” The initial Bush budget outline, A Blueprint for New Beginnings, released on February 28, and the Administration’s official FY2002 budget request, released on April 9, include $325 billion in new budget authority for national defense in FY2002, but that total remains subject to change as the defense review proceeds. Moreover, official Administration defense budget projections beyond FY2002 simply reflect projected growth with inflation in overall annual funding for national defense fromFY2003 through FY2006 rather than the results of any policy assessment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1550/
A Defense Budget Primer
This report is a primer for those who wish to familiarize themselves with the defense budget process. The report defines basic defense budget-related terms, describes the structure of the defense budget, briefly reviews the budgeting process within the Department of Defense (DOD), and outlines the successive phases of the congressional defense budget process. It also provides a short review of the budget execution process. This report will be updated only in the event of significant changes to the defense budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs606/
Military Spending by Foreign Nations: Data from Selected Public Sources
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Appropriations for FY2000: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs873/
Taxes and Fiscal Year 2006 Budget Reconciliation: A Brief Summary
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State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2016 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the FY2016 SFOPS request, a discussion of key issues and historic context, and account-by-account funding comparisons with FY2014 actuals and FY2015 estimates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689453/
Supplemental Appropriations: Trends and Budgetary Impacts Since 1981
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