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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3824/
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report is divided into two segments. The first segment provides the most recent developments and content of the FY2005 continuing resolutions. The second segment provides information on the history of CRs; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 35 years; the types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when funding (or budget authority2) has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3826/
Financial Services and General Government Appropriations: FY2012 Budget Request Fact Sheet
This report includes information about the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) appropriations bill and funding requests for the Department of the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President (EOP), the judiciary, the District of Columbia, and 26 independent agencies. Among the independent agencies funded by the bill are the General Services Administration (GSA), the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), the Small Business Administration (SBA), the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC), and the United States Postal Service (USPS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103135/
Veterans Affairs: Historical Budget Authority, Fiscal Years 1940 Through 2010
This report provides information on the historical budget authority of the Department of Veterans Affairs (formerly the Veterans Administration) for FY1940 through FY2010. Budget authority is presented in both current dollars and constant 2010 dollars (i.e., inflation-adjusted). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103250/
FY2014 Appropriations: District of Columbia
This report discusses the FY2014 budget request, general provisions and key policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267879/
The “Deeming Resolution”: A Budget Enforcement Tool
This report gives an overview of the "deeming resolution" (referring to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle). It includes background information and a breakdown of House and Senate action on deeming resolutions, broken down by fiscal year for the cycles when there was no agreement on a budget resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98046/
Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations
This report discusses the legislative branch appropriations bill that provides funding for the Senate, House of Representatives, Joint Items, Capitol Police, Office of Compliance, Congressional Budget Office (CBO), Architect of the Capitol (AOC), Library of Congress (LOC) -- including the Congressional Research Service (CRS) -- Government Printing Office (GPO), Government Accountability Office (GAO), and Open World Leadership Center. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306505/
FY2015 Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations: Fact Sheet
This report will track and describe actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2015 appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) accounts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306545/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2015 Budget and Appropriations
This report tracks the FY2015 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs appropriations process. It includes information about recent actions, current requests and past trends, state operations and related agencies, and foreign operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306432/
The Financial Action Task Force: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the Financial Action Task Force and of its progress to date in gaining broad international support for its recommendations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332859/
Veterans Affairs: Historical Budget Authority, FY1940-FY2012
This report provides information on the historical budget authority of the Department of Veterans Affairs (formerly the Veterans Administration) for FY1940 through FY2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94237/
Mandatory Spending Since 1962
Mandatory spending includes federal government spending on entitlement programs as well as other budget outlays controlled by laws other than appropriation acts. Entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare make up the bulk of mandatory spending. This report looks at mandatory spending and how it has grown over time relative to total federal spending and the size of the U.S. economy. It also analyzes future mandatory spending levels and how they are projected to impact the federal budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29663/
Entitlements and Appropriated Entitlements in the Federal Budget Process
Entitlements are programs that require payments to persons, state or local governments, or other entities if specific eligibility criteria established in the authorizing law are met. Entitlement payments are legal obligations of the federal government, and eligible beneficiaries may have legal recourse if full payment under the law is not provided. This report briefly discusses entitlements and entitlement procedures in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31433/
Introduction to the Federal Budget Process
This report provides a detailed introduction to the federal budget process, which is an enormously complex process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31323/
Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology
In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government's spending, revenues, and borrowing. This report provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31315/
F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues
This report discusses the background, status, and current issues of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II JSF is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96735/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011
This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29582/
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) - which includes the National Fire Academy (NFA) - is currently an entity within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The objective of the USFA is to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire. In the 112th Congress, debate over the USFA budget focuses on whether the USFA is receiving sufficient funding to accomplish its mission, given that appropriations for USFA have consistently been well below the agency's authorized level. An ongoing issue is the viability and status of the USFA and National Fire Academy within the Department of Homeland Security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33077/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects
This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33073/
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) - which includes the National Fire Academy (NFA) - is currently an entity within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The objective of the USFA is to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire. In the 111th Congress, debate over the USFA budget focuses on whether the USFA is receiving sufficient funding to accomplish its mission, given that appropriations for USFA have consistently been well below the agency's authorized level. An ongoing issue is the viability and status of the USFA and National Fire Academy within the Department of Homeland Security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29720/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects
This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29717/
The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction
This report discusses the following aspects of the congressional appropriations process: the annual appropriations cycle; types of appropriations measures; spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and the relationship between authorization and appropriation measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31309/
Intelligence Spending and Appropriations: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the historic trend in intelligence spending, as well as broader issues concerning the intelligence budgeting process, and may help Members of Congress contextualize information concerning the FY2013 budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272022/
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA)—which includes the National Fire Academy (NFA)—is currently housed within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The objective of the USFA is to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire. The United States Fire Administration Reauthorization Act of 2008 was signed into law on October 8, 2008. As is the case with many federal programs, concerns in the 112th Congress over the federal budget deficit could impact budget levels for the USFA. Debate over the USFA budget has focused on whether the USFA is receiving an appropriate level of funding to accomplish its mission, given that appropriations for USFA have consistently been well below the agency's authorized level. An ongoing issue is the viability and status of the USFA and National Fire Academy within the Department of Homeland Security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87358/
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
The United States Fire Administration (USFA)—which includes the National Fire Academy (NFA)—is currently housed within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The objective of the USFA is to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire. As is the case with many federal programs, concerns in the 112th Congress over the federal budget deficit could impact budget levels for the USFA. Debate over the USFA budget has focused on whether the USFA is receiving an appropriate level of funding to accomplish its mission, given that appropriations for USFA have consistently been well below the agency's authorized level. An ongoing issue is the viability and status of the USFA and National Fire Academy within the Department of Homeland Security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87359/
Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2011 Appropriations
This report discusses the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) FY2011 appropriations bill, which includes funding for the Department of the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President (EOP), the judiciary, the District of Columbia, and 26 independent agencies, including the Small Business Administration and the United States Postal Service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99018/
Public Health Service (PHS) Agencies: Overview and Funding, FY2010-FY2012
This report discusses the eleven agencies that consist of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), including their purposes and funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99043/
U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1837/
The Economics of the Federal Budget Surplus
Fiscal 1998 marked the first year that total receipts exceeded outlays in the federal budget since 1969. Since then, the budget has been in surplus and official projections expect the budget to remain in surplus for the foreseeable future. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) baseline projections indicate that the budget surpluses are expected to grow steadily over the next 10 years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1428/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1489/
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview
This report provides background information on funding gaps since FY 1977, and it discusses the general practice of the federal government when a funding gap occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228089/
Offsets, Supplemental Appropriations, and the Disaster Relief Fund: FY1990-FY2013
Report that discusses the recent history of offsetting rescissions in paying for supplemental appropriations to the Federal Emergency Management Agency's Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227752/
The U.S. Bureau of Mines Funding - FY1996
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs199/
Head Start: Background and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1108/
The Economics of the Federal Budget Surplus
Fiscal 1998 marked the first year that total receipts exceeded outlays in the federal budget since 1969. Since then, the budget has been in surplus and official projections expect the budget to remain in surplus for the foreseeable future. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) baseline projections indicate that the budget surpluses are expected to grow steadily over the next 10 years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10011/
Medicaid, SCHIP, and Other Health Provisions in H.R. 5661: Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1362/
Medicare Provisions in the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA, P.L. 106-554)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1363/
Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy -- Issues and Options for Congress
The Navy's FY2007 budget proposes retiring the conventionally-powered aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and reducing the size of the carrier force from 12 ships to 11. One potential issue for Congress is whether the carrier force should include 12 ships or some other number. If a carrier is to be retired in the near term so as to reduce the carrier force to 11 ships, a second potential issue is whether that carrier should be the Kennedy or another ship. Potential alternatives to the Kennedy include the conventionally-powered Kitty Hawk and the nuclear-powered carriers Enterprise and Vinson. A third potential issue for Congress concerns the relative military advantages of different homeporting arrangements for the carrier force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10398/
Veterans Affairs: Historical Budget Authority, Fiscal Years 1940 through 2007
Budget authority -- the amount of money a federal department or agency can spend or obligate to spend by law -- for veterans' benefits and services has increased significantly since FY1940. The increases over time have reflected the impact of increases in the number of veterans as the result of wars and other conflicts, the aging of the veteran population, and changes in benefits and services provided for veterans. This report provides information on the historical budget authority of the Department of Veterans Affairs (formerly the Veterans Administration) for FY1940 through FY2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10757/
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): Review of Budget and Issues in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1691/
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's FY2001 Budget Request and FY2001-FY2002 Authorization: Description and Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1693/
National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2009 Budget, and Issues for Congress
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducts U.S. civilian space and aeronautics activities. For FY2009, the Administration requested $17.614 billion for NASA, and increase of 1.8% from the FY2008 appropriation of $17.309 billion. The President's 2004 Moon/Mars Vision for Space Exploration is the major focus of NASA's activities. Issues for Congress regarding this goal include the development of new vehicles for human spaceflight, plans for the transition to these vehicles after the space shuttle is retired in 2010, and the balance in NASA's priorities between human space exploration and the agency's activities in science and aeronautics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10728/
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
Congressional debate over U.N. funding focuses on the following questions: (1) What is the appropriate level of U.S. funding for U.N. system operations and programs? (@) What U.S. funding actions are most likely to produce a positive continuation of U.N. system reform efforts? The U.N. system includes the parent U.N. organization, a number of affiliated agencies, voluntary funds and programs, and peacekeeping operations. For nearly 60 years, the United States has been the single largest financial contributor to the U.N. system. Both Congress and the executive branch have been pressing U.N. system organizations to reform, especially to improve management and budgeting practices. In recent years, the U.N. has undertaken reforms, including a restructuring of its financial assessment system, allowing the U.S. to pay some of its arrears. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10512/
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview
The interval during the fiscal year when agency appropriations are not enacted into law, either in the form of a regular appropriations act or a continuing resolution, is referred to as a funding gap. When a funding gap occurs, the federal government begins a shutdown of the affected agencies, entailing the prompt furlough of non-emergency personnel and curtailment of agency activities. This report discusses the funding gaps that occurred between FY1977-FY2008, as well as the events surrounding them and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10550/
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
The Congressional Budget Act of 1974 created a process that Congress uses each year to establish and enforce the parameters for budgetary legislation. This report summarizes points of order under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in the budget resolutions adopted by Congress in 2007 and 2008, the Rules of the House for the 110th Congress, and the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990. In addition, it describes how points of order are applied and the processes used for their waiver in the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10533/
Long-Term Care: The President's FY2001 Budget Proposals and Related Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1242/
The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects
The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program, started in the 1980's and funded generously in the early 1990's, has completed most of its surviving projects and has not funded any new ones since 1994. However, President Bush’s FY2002 budget outline proposed spending $2 billion over 10 years on a restructured CCT program. It is not clear what kind of projects would be included in the new program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1402/
U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5068/
U.N. System Funding: Congressional Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5069/
Immigration and Naturalization Services's FY2000 Budget
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs986/