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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Baseline Budget Projections Under Alternative Assumptions

Baseline Budget Projections Under Alternative Assumptions

Date: February 8, 2005
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A & Labonte, Marc
Description: The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates a baseline budget based on simple rules prescribed by law. Statute requires CBO to project a baseline of revenues and outlays under current law over the next 10 years. Arguably, a “better guess” of the probable path of the federal budget under current policy might be achieved by modifying four assumptions in the CBO baseline. First, that discretionary spending will remain constant as a share of GDP rather than growing at the rate of inflation. Second, that military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan will continue and should be counted in the baseline rather than omitted. Third, that recent tax reduction will be extended rather than allowed to expire. Fourth, that the alternative minimum tax (AMT) relief will be extended rather than allowing the AMT to “take back” the reductions in regular income tax.
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Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution

Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution

Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: The FY2006 budget resolution, which was agreed to by the House and Senate on April 28, 2005, included reconciliation instructions for: (1) an omnibus bill to reduce mandatory outlays by about $35 billion over a five-year period, covering FY2006-FY2010; (2) a bill to reduce revenues by $70 billion over the same period; and (3) a bill to increase the limit on the public debt by $781 billion. Congressional action on the resultant reconciliation legislation, while ultimately successful, was marked by controversy and delay. As of May 2006, congressional action on the reconciliation legislation called for in the FY2006 budget resolution was completed.
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Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution

Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution

Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: The FY2006 budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95), which was agreed to by the House and Senate on April 28, 2005, included reconciliation instructions for: (1) an omnibus bill to reduce mandatory outlays by about $35 billion over a five-year period, covering FY2006-FY2010; (2) a bill to reduce revenues by $70 billion over the same period; and (3) a bill to increase the limit on the public debt by $781 billion.
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The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

Date: July 25, 2006
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Description: The Administration's Mid-Session Review (July 2006) had a revised deficit estimate for FY2006 of $296 billion (2.3% of gross domestic product). This was over $100 billion below the FY2006 deficit estimate in the President's FY2007 budget (February 2006). On March 17, 2005, the House and Senate adopted their respective budget resolutions for FY2006. After extensive leadership discussion, a conference reached agreement on April 28; both chambers adopted it later that day. The conference agreement included reconciliation instructions for mandatory spending reductions, tax reductions, and an increase in the statutory debt limit. This report explores these issues in full, as well as detailing additional legislation regarding the FY2006 Budget and budget resolutions.
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The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

Date: July 25, 2006
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: The July 2005 mid-year budget report from the Administration had an improved deficit outlook through FY2010, while CBO’s August 2005 mid-year report included a somewhat worsened baseline deficit outlook. Congress passed three continuing resolutions (CRs) on appropriations during the fall and early winter to fund otherwise unfunded activities. It needed the time to complete action on the regular appropriation bills for FY2006. The last two cleared Congress on December 21, almost three months after the start of FY2006.
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Congressional Action on FY2014 Appropriations Measures

Congressional Action on FY2014 Appropriations Measures

Date: December 18, 2013
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report provides background and analysis with regard to the FY2014 appropriations process. The first section discusses the status of discretionary budget enforcement for FY2014, including the statutory spending limits and allocations under the congressional budget resolution. The second section provides information on the consideration of regular appropriations measures and an overview of their funding levels.
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The President's Budget: Overview of Structure and Timing of Submission to Congress

The President's Budget: Overview of Structure and Timing of Submission to Congress

Date: March 4, 2014
Creator: Christensen, Michelle D.
Description: This report provides information on the origins, content, and submission dates of the President's budget.
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Congressional Action on FY2015 Appropriations Measures

Congressional Action on FY2015 Appropriations Measures

Date: November 5, 2014
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: The congressional appropriations process, which provides discretionary spending for federal government agencies, assumes the annual enactment of 12 regular appropriations bills prior to the beginning of the fiscal year (October 1). One or more continuing resolutions (CRs) may be enacted if all regular appropriations bills are not completed by that time. This report provides information on the budget enforcement framework for the consideration of FY2015 appropriations measures, the status of the FY2015 regular appropriations bills as of the beginning of the fiscal year, and the enactment of FY2015 continuing appropriations.
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Congressional Action on FY2014 Appropriations Measures

Congressional Action on FY2014 Appropriations Measures

Date: January 28, 2014
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report provides background and analysis with regard to the FY2014 appropriations process. The first section discusses the status of discretionary budget enforcement for FY2014, including the statutory spending limits and allocations under the congressional budget resolution. The second section provides information on the consideration and enactment of regular appropriations and an overview of aggregate discretionary spending.
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Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2010 Appropriations

Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2010 Appropriations

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Hatch, Garrett
Description: This report discuses the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) appropriations bill, which provides funding for two of the three branches of the federal government, a city government, and 26 independent agencies with a range of functions and encompasses a number of potentially controversial issues.
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Congressional Action on FY2015 Appropriations Measures

Congressional Action on FY2015 Appropriations Measures

Date: March 9, 2015
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report provides information on the budget enforcement framework for the consideration of FY2015 appropriations measures, the status of the FY2015 regular appropriations bills as of the beginning of the fiscal year, and the enactment of FY2015 continuing appropriations.
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Baseline Budget Projections: A Discussion of Issues

Baseline Budget Projections: A Discussion of Issues

Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: Between January 2001 and January 2005, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) reduced its 10-year baseline projection for the period 2002-2011 from a peak surplus of $5.6 trillion to a deficit of $2.6 trillion for three reasons. First, about one third of the reduction is due to technical revisions CBO made to its projections (e.g., to account for the smaller than predicted growth in tax revenues). Second, the recession both reduced revenues and raised outlays automatically. This factor accounts for less than one-tenth of the 10-year decline, and is only significant in 2002 and 2003. Finally, about 60% of the reduction was due to policy changes, the largest of which was tax cuts, and the second largest of which was increased military outlays. Even without a recession or technical revisions, policy changes alone would have pushed the budget into deficit from 2003 to 2005.
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Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Date: March 5, 2001
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government’s spending, revenues, and borrowing. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process.
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Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government’s spending, revenues, and borrowing. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process.
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Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Date: April 27, 1998
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government’s spending, revenues, and borrowing. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process.
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The Magnitude of Changes That Would Be Required to Balance the FY2006 Budget

The Magnitude of Changes That Would Be Required to Balance the FY2006 Budget

Date: February 24, 2005
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: None
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Budget FY2003: A Chronology with Internet Access

Budget FY2003: A Chronology with Internet Access

Date: April 18, 2003
Creator: Murray, Justin
Description: This is a select chronology of, and a finding guide for information on, congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 2002, covering the FY2003 budget. Brief information is provided for the President’s budget, congressional budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular, continuing, supplementals, and rescissions), budget reconciliation, House and Senate votes, line-item vetoes, publications, testimony, charts, and tables.
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The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

Date: July 21, 2005
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: On February 7, 2005, the President presented his FY2006 budget, containing proposals and estimates for FY2006 through FY2010. The proposal has a deficit of $390 billion (3.0% of GDP) in FY2006, and steadily declining deficits through FY2010. The budget did not include estimates of the cost of the war on terror beyond FY2005. It did not include cost estimates of the Administration’s proposals for changes in Social Security. It did include specific proposals that, over five years, would reduce spending among the non-defense discretionary programs; slow the growth in defense spending; slow the growth in selected categories of mandatory spending; and make further tax cuts along with making permanent the 2001 and 2003 tax cuts.
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The Budget for Fiscal Year 2007

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2007

Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: The President’s fiscal year (FY) 2007 budget released in early February 2006 included proposals to make the 2001 and 2003 tax cuts permanent; slow the growth of Medicare spending; hold funding for non-defense, non-homeland security funding to little if any increase; and introduce, in FY2010, private accounts for Social Security. The Congressional Budget Office’s (CBO’s) January 2006 budget report provided baseline estimates and projections through FY2016. CBO also estimated the cost of alternative policies that some would say are more likely to occur than some of the policies assumed in the baseline.
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Budget FY2000: A Chronology with Internet Access

Budget FY2000: A Chronology with Internet Access

Date: July 27, 1999
Creator: Watkins, Susan E
Description: This report provides a select chronology of congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 1999, covering the FY2000 budget. While the paper copy provides numerous Internet addresses, congressional offices can also use the Internet version of this report to access active links to appropriations and budget legislation, budget and economic data tables, pie charts, glossaries, selected testimony, publications, the President’s budget documents, and CRS products.
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Budget FY2000: A Chronology with Internet Access

Budget FY2000: A Chronology with Internet Access

Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Watkins, Susan E
Description: This report provides a select chronology of congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 1999, covering the FY2000 budget. While the paper copy provides numerous Internet addresses, congressional offices can also use the Internet version of this report to access active links to appropriations and budget legislation, budget and economic data tables, pie charts, glossaries, selected testimony, publications, the President’s budget documents, and CRS products.
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Budget FY2001: A Chronology with Internet Access

Budget FY2001: A Chronology with Internet Access

Date: December 27, 2000
Creator: Thomas, Pearl
Description: This is a select chronology of, and a finding guide for information on, congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 2000, covering the FY2001 budget. Brief information is provided for the President’s budget, congressional budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular, continuing, supplementals, and rescissions), budget reconciliation, House and Senate votes, line-item vetoes, publications, testimony, charts, and tables.
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Budget FY2001: A Chronology with Internet Access

Budget FY2001: A Chronology with Internet Access

Date: November 14, 2000
Creator: Thomas, Pearl
Description: This is a select chronology of, and a finding guide for information on, congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 2000, covering the FY2001 budget. Brief information is provided for the President’s budget, congressional budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular, continuing, supplementals, and rescissions), budget reconciliation, House and Senate votes, line-item vetoes, publications, testimony, charts, and tables.
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Budget FY2002: A Chronology with Internet Access

Budget FY2002: A Chronology with Internet Access

Date: September 17, 2002
Creator: Murray, Justin
Description: This is a select chronology of, and a finding guide for information on, congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 2001, covering the FY2002 budget. Brief information is provided for the President’s budget, congressional budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular, continuing, supplementals, and rescissions), budget reconciliation, House and Senate votes, line-item vetoes, publications, testimony, charts, and tables.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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