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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: November 5, 2007
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report looks at the distinct population segments (DPSs) process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also reviews experimental populations of wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
CRS Issue Statement on Animal Welfare

CRS Issue Statement on Animal Welfare

Date: January 11, 2010
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses the questions whether additional measures are needed to protect the health and well-being of animals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: April 4, 2006
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: Fish and marine mammals are important resources in open ocean and nearshore coastal areas; many federal laws and regulations guide their management. This report discusses a variety of laws and legislation pertaining to this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Legislative Actions Through the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Legislative Actions Through the 109th Congress

Date: April 9, 2007
Creator: Gillis, Anne; Corn, M. Lynne & Gelb, Bernard A.
Description: This report is intended to provide a summary of legislative attempts to address issues of energy development and preservation in the Refuge from the 95th Congress through the 109th Congress, with emphasis on the 107th through 109th Congresses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Date: May 25, 2010
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Upton, Harold F.; Stern, Charles V. & Nichols, James E.
Description: Four species of non-indigenous Asian carp are expanding their range in U.S. waterways, resulting in a variety of concerns and problems. Three species—bighead, silver, and black carp—are of particular note, based on the perceived degree of environmental concern. This report examines current controversy relating to what measures might be necessary and sufficient to prevent movement of Asian carp from the Mississippi River drainage into the Great Lakes through the Chicago Area Waterway System. Movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes is ultimately of concern because increased numbers of carp in the Great Lakes increases the risk that Asian carp will establish reproducing populations in these waters. Bills have been introduced in the 111th Congress to direct actions to avoid the possibility of carp becoming established in the Great Lakes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

Date: April 16, 2008
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Buck, Eugene H & Alexander, Kristina
Description: The discussion on this report is expanded for four aspects of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and its implementation that have raised concerns and promoted debate—listing species, designating critical habitat, consulting on projects, and exempting projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Lister, Sarah A & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
BSE (“Mad Cow Disease”): A Brief Overview

BSE (“Mad Cow Disease”): A Brief Overview

Date: July 18, 2006
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: The appearance of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or “mad cow disease”) in North America in 2003 raised meat safety concerns and disrupted trade for cattle and beef producers. A major issue for Congress has been how to rebuild foreign confidence in the safety of U.S. beef and regain lost markets like Japan and Korea. Among other issues are whether additional measures are needed to further protect the public and cattle herd, and concerns over the relative costs and benefits of such measures for consumers, taxpayers and industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

Date: February 7, 2007
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Porter, Donna V.
Description: Numerous federal, state, and local agencies share responsibilities for regulating the safety of the U.S. food supply, which many experts say is among the safest in the world. Nevertheless, critics view this system as lacking the organization and resources to adequately combat foodborne illness, which sickens an estimated 76 million people and kills an estimated 5,000 each year in this country. The 110th Congress may face calls for a review of federal food safety agencies and authorities, and proposals for reorganizing them. Among the issues likely to arise are whether reform can improve oversight, and the cost to industry, consumers, and taxpayers. This report provides a brief introduction to the system and the debate on whether reorganization is needed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Polar Bears: Proposed Listing Under the Endangered Species Act

Polar Bears: Proposed Listing Under the Endangered Species Act

Date: April 23, 2007
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses the proposed listing of polar bears as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; 16 U.S.C. §§1531 et seq.), which highlights the intersection of two significant issues currently before Congress — climate change and species protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), which is threefold: to provide a means to conserve ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend; to provide a program to protect those species; and to take steps to achieve the purposes of related treaties and conventions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species Act (ESA) Issues Regarding Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead

Endangered Species Act (ESA) Issues Regarding Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead

Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Buck, Eugene H.
Description: The construction and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) have reduced salmon and steelhead populations in the Columbia Basin. This report discusses the federal regulation of this system under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy

International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy

Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Wyler, Liana S. & Sheikh, Pervaze A.
Description: This report focuses on the international trade in terrestrial fauna, largely excluding trade in illegal plants, including timber, and fish. Potential issues for Congress include (1) determining funding for trade inspection and investigation; (2) evaluating effectiveness of U.S. foreign aid to combat wildlife trafficking; (3) developing ways to encourage regulation of the wildlife trade; (4) trade sanctions to penalize weak enforcement of wildlife laws; (5) incorporating wildlife trade provisions into free trade agreements; and (6) addressing the domestic and international demand for illegal wildlife.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Invasive Species: Issues in Brief

Invasive Species: Issues in Brief

Date: May 22, 2015
Creator: Corn, M. L. & Johnson, Renée
Description: This report discusses issues for congress regarding whether new legislative authorities and funding are needed to address issues related to invasive species and their increasing economic and ecological impacts on such disparate matters as power plant operations, grazing lands, and coral reef fishes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder

Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder

Date: January 7, 2010
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report provides an overview of the importance of honey bee pollination to U.S. agricultural production, especially specialty crops. It describes the extent and symptoms of Colony Colapse Disorder (CCD) and how it differs from previous honey bee colony losses, describing some of the reasons why scientists believe honey bee colonies are being affected by CCD. Finally, the report discusses policy options and actions that Congress has taken to address this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers

Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers

Date: May 12, 2009
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers

Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers

Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers

Date: May 20, 2009
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 111th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 111th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. Lynne; Sheikh, Pervaze A.; Meltz, Robert & Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses oversight issues and legislation introduced in the 111th Congress to address Endangered Species Act (ESA) implementation and management of endangered and threatened species.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Coastal Wetland and Wildlife Impacts and Response

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Coastal Wetland and Wildlife Impacts and Response

Date: July 7, 2010
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne & Copeland, Claudia
Description: The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, and the resulting oil spill began a cascade of effects on the coastal areas of the Gulf and on the wealth of species that inhabit those areas. This report addresses the importance of wetlands in general, the ecology of the coastal wetlands in the Gulf, impacts of oil spills on wetland habitats, response options, the implications of hurricane season for the spill's impacts, and cleanup and recovery issues. The emphasis is on the nearshore environment, although a few species found in deeper waters will be mentioned. In addition, some lessons from past spills such as the Exxon Valdez in Alaska will be discussed, along with issues that may arise as response and recovery transition to restoration of the Gulf.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Date: August 6, 2010
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Upton, Harold F.; Stern, Charles V. & Nichols, James E.
Description: This report provides an overview of four species of non-indigenous Asian carp that are expanding their range in U.S. waterways, resulting in a variety of concerns and problems. This report details the environmental and economic threats from this invasion, as well as ways to combat the spread of Asian carp in U.S. water.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

Date: August 18, 2010
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: Numerous federal, state, and local agencies share responsibilities for regulating the safety of the U.S. food supply, which many experts say is among the safest in the world. This report discusses various food safety proposals in Congress, as well as agencies with food safety related responsibilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Upton, Harold F.; Stern, Charles V. & Nichols, James E.
Description: This report discusses four species of non-indigenous Asian carp that are expanding their range in U.S. waterways, resulting in a variety of concerns and problems. Three species--bighead, silver, and black carp--are of particular note, based on the perceived degree of environmental concern. Current controversy relates to what measures might be necessary and sufficient to prevent movement of Asian carp from the Mississippi River drainage into the Great Lakes through the Chicago Area Waterway System. Bills have been introduced in the 111th Congress to direct actions to avoid the possibility of carp becoming established in the Great Lakes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department