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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5736/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Legislative Issues
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and focuses especially on related pieces of legislation that directly affects the future of the ANWR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2152/
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Legislative Issues
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and focuses especially on related pieces of legislation that directly affects the future of the ANWR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2151/
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Legislative Issues
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and focuses especially on related pieces of legislation that directly affects the future of the ANWR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2154/
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Legislative Issues
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and focuses especially on related pieces of legislation that directly affects the future of the ANWR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2153/
The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities
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The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2155/
Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994
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The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9938/
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Background and Issues
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and related pieces of legislation. It does not analyze specific proposals to develop or protect the Refuge. Rather, it provides basic material for analyzing possibilities and implications of the major issues that have been the focus of the legislative debate over its fate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3775/
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3771/
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
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Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
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"Mad Cow Disease" or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Scientific and Regulatory Issues
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Active Military Sonar and Marine Mammals: Events and References
The deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern. This report summarizes legal and political events related to active sonar and marine mammals since 1994. This report summarizes some of the more significant recent events pertaining to active military sonar, in particular. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7920/
Active Sonar and Marine Mammals: Chronology with References
The deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern. This report provides a chronology of significant events and documents since 1994. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7352/
Active Sonar and Marine Mammals: Chronology with References
The deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern. This report provides a chronology of significant events and documents since 1994. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7353/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress
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Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress
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Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease): Agricultural Issues for Congress
This report presents the background and analysis of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including the definition. It also discusses the BSE economic and trade implications as well as selected issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7867/
Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3248/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3244/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3246/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3243/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs742/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7250/
Polar Bears: Listing Under the Endangered Species Act
This report discusses the protection of polar bears under the Endangered Species Act and how they are affected by climate change, contaminants, and subsistence and sport hunting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98089/
Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of the Polar Bear?
This report discusses the polar bear that has been protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) since 1972. The polar bear was listed because the bear's primary habitat of sea ice was threatened with destruction due to global climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94162/
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments Act of 1994, S. 2230 (103rd Cong., 2nd Sess.): A Brief Analysis
This report provides an analysis of S. 2230, the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments of 1994 introduced June 23, 1994, to amend the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. It includes sections on stated purposes, enhanced powers of the National Indian Gaming Commission, proposed tribal-state compacting process, modifications of current law with respect to class II gaming, modification of current law with respect to class III gaming, and miscellaneous amendments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26052/
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers
This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26156/
Animal Agriculture: 2008 Farm Bill Issues
This report discusses a number of animal-related provisions related to the 2008 farm bill. It includes background and specific provisions from the bill for each of the issues and options analyzed in the report: market competition and packer concentration, livestock mandatory price reporting, meat and poultry safety, country-of-origin labeling, animal identification for health protection, animal welfare, feed prices, disaster assistance, and environmental issues. The report also provides a summary comparison of previous farm bills with the 2008 provisions for selected issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94104/
Marine Protected Areas: An Overview
This report identifies a number of issues related to establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) in the United States. It begins by defining the concept and administrative actions taken to provide spatial protection in marine areas. It then considers some of the key issues and potential benefits and costs of designating additional MPAs. It concludes by summarizing current congressional interest in the topic and legislation proposed during the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463440/
International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy
This report addresses illegal wildlife trade through several national and international venues and how this trade presents several potential environmental and national security threats to the United States. It also focuses on the international trade in terrestrial fauna, largely excluding trade in illegal plants, including timber, and fish. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463028/
Endangered Species Act and Legal Issues Regarding Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead
This report discusses the resident fish, such as bull trout and Kootenai River white sturgeon, which are listed as threatened and endangered respectively under the ESA are affected by the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This report focuses on Endangered Species Act (ESA) actions and litigation related to these species. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462921/
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers
This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505399/
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers
This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505524/
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers
This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505410/
The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer
This report discusses concerns about food safety, the resources required to ensure food safety, and whether federal food safety laws themselves, first enacted in the early 1900s, have kept pace with the significant changes that have occurred in the food production, processing, and marketing sectors since then. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276872/
The Endangered Species Act and Private Property
If the 103rd Congress embarks upon an effort to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act (ESA), it will run into an old acquaintance: the property rights issue. As now written, the ESA has at least the potential to curtail property rights (whatever its actual impact as implemented may be). This report explores the legal repercussions of those impacts, especially whether they constitute takings of property under the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26028/