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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: August 17, 2011
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report analyzes the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as it applies to gray wolf wolves and, in particular, to their treatment as experimental populations (Ex Pops) and distinct population segments (DPSs).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report looks at the distinct population segments (DPSs) process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also reviews experimental populations of wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), which is threefold: to provide a means to conserve ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend; to provide a program to protect those species; and to take steps to achieve the purposes of related treaties and conventions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M
Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sport Hunting in Alaska

Sport Hunting in Alaska

Date: May 1, 1984
Creator: Backiel, Adela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The agencies that implement the Endangered Species Act (ESA) regard the designation of critical habitat (CH) as providing only very limited benefits beyond those achieved through the listing of species and the avoidance of jeopardy to them. Several courts have now held that the relevant regulation and interpretation that result in this conclusion are erroneous and do not carry out the intent of Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law

Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

Date: May 30, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses new regulations on livestock grazing on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management became effective August 21, 1995. Many aspects of the new regulations were challenged in Public Lands Council v. Babbitt. A federal district court upheld many of the regulations, but struck down four of them and enjoined their implementation. At the appellate level, only the new regulation allowing conservation use to the exclusion of livestock grazing for the full term of a permit was held invalid. The Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case and argument has been set for March 1, 2000.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision

Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision

Date: July 6, 1995
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the Endangered Species Act, the regulation of the Fish and Wildlife Service defining "harm" for purposes of the "take" prohibitions of the Endangered Species Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Date: April 26, 2002
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the legal issues considered by Congress on whether to permit drilling for oil and gas in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Date: March 9, 2004
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Date: April 22, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Date: March 18, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Date: April 22, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the legal issues considered by Congress on whether to permit drilling for oil and gas in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Date: May 4, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the legal issues considered by Congress on whether to permit drilling for oil and gas in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act

The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act

Date: July 16, 1999
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Date: August 27, 2004
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Date: March 2, 1998
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"

The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"

Date: July 16, 2002
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela; Buck, Eugene H & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela; Buck, Eugene H & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department