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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Predator Control and Compound 1080
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Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of Polar Bear?: A Look at the Special Rules
This report looks at the regulations surrounding the polar bear, which has been protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) since 1972. The report discusses the protections, prohibitions, and special rules for polar bears as well as exceptions to the rules, habitat issues, recovery plans, and other issues regarding polar bear protections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87349/
Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of the Polar Bear?
This report discusses the polar bear that has been protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) since 1972. The polar bear was listed because the bear's primary habitat of sea ice was threatened with destruction due to global climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94162/
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations
This report looks at the distinct population segments (DPS) process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also reviews experimental populations of wolves under the ESA and their protections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96792/
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations
This report analyzes the DPS designation process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also examines experimental populations of wolves under the ESA and their protections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87332/
The Lacey Act: Protecting the Environment by Restricting Trade
This report looks at the history and applications of the Lacey Act. As it stands now the Act, via a 2008 amendment, allows the U.S. to enforce the laws of other countries as well. One currently proposed legislation would limit application of the law to specific wood products, while another would eliminate any reference to violations of foreign laws and end criminal prosecutions for violating the act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85395/
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights
This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8176/
Sport Hunting in Alaska
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Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
The agencies that implement the Endangered Species Act (ESA) regard the designation of critical habitat (CH) as providing only very limited benefits beyond those achieved through the listing of species and the avoidance of jeopardy to them. Several courts have now held that the relevant regulation and interpretation that result in this conclusion are erroneous and do not carry out the intent of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10094/
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3771/
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1406/
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law
This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10071/
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals
This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3772/
Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt
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Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The
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Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
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Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
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Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
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Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
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Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
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Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
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The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act
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The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
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Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351
Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs530/
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2155/
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer
The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9669/
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer
The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9678/
Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress
This report discusses a variety of animal agriculture issues that generated debate during the 106th Congress, including low livestock prices, especially for hogs. Economic difficulties have revived questions such as the impacts of consolidation in the livestock industry, and the price effects of animal imports from Canada and Mexico. This report also discusses a number of legislative proposals to assist livestock producers and enforce sanitary and phytosanitary standards, as well as continuing trade disputes and negotiations with China, the European Union, New Zealand, and Australia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs833/
Animal Identification and Meat Traceability
U.S. animal agriculture is seeking to improve its ability to trace the movement of livestock from their birthplace to slaughter. The livestock and meat industries are working with the U.S. government to develop a national animal identification (ID) plan for livestock disease tracking purposes. This report focuses on animal ID and, to a lesser extent, on meat traceability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8939/
Animal Identification and Meat Traceability
U.S. animal agriculture is seeking to improve its ability to trace the movement of livestock from their birthplace to slaughter. The livestock and meat industries are working with the U.S. government to develop a national animal identification (ID) plan for livestock disease tracking purposes. This report focuses on animal ID and, to a lesser extent, on meat traceability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8899/
Animal Rendering: Economics and Policy
Renderers convert dead animals and animal byproducts into ingredients for a wide range of industrial and consumer goods, such as animal feed, soaps, candles, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. This report describes the rendering industry and discusses several industry-related issues that arose in the 108th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9085/
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease") in North America: A Chronology of Selected Events
This report provides a chronology of selected events leading up to and following the discoveries of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in North America. These are primarily regulatory, legal, and congressional developments that are frequently referenced in the ongoing policy debate. The chronology does not contain entries for the introduction of the many BSE-related bills introduced into this or previous Congresses, except for those in recent years where committee or floor action has occurred. This report, which will be updated if significant developments ensue, is intended to be used alongside other CRS reports that provide more background and context for the BSE policy debate, and that cover many specific legislative proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8733/
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease): Agricultural Issues for Congress
This report presents the background and analysis of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including the definition. It also discusses the BSE economic and trade implications as well as selected issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7867/
BSE ("Mad Cow Disease"): A Brief Overview
The appearance of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or “mad cow disease”) in North America has raised public health concerns and disrupted trade for cattle and beef producers. A major issue for Congress has been how to rebuild foreign confidence in the safety of U.S. beef and regain lost markets like Japan. Among other issues are whether additional measures are needed to further protect the public and cattle herd, and concerns over the relative costs and benefits of such measures for consumers, taxpayers and industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8745/
Cattle Prices: Questions and Answers
After 7 years of relatively high returns, cattle producers by 1994 were experiencing steeply falling prices--mainly caused by abundant supplies of cattle destined for U.S. feedlots. Record-high grain prices and dry pastures amplified the problem. Because of the lengthy biological cycle governing cattle production, large numbers will be coming onto the market for some time, as producers undertake the slow process of curtailing herd expansion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs290/
Hog Prices: Questions and Answers
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Horse Slaughter Prevention Bills and Issues
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Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Issues
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Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Issues
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Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Issues
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Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Selected Issues
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Livestock Price Reporting: Background
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Livestock Price Reporting: Background
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Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress
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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow Disease"): Current and Proposed Safeguards
This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8731/
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