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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of Polar Bear?: A Look at the Special Rules

Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of Polar Bear?: A Look at the Special Rules

Date: March 26, 2009
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report looks at the regulations surrounding the polar bear, which has been protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) since 1972. The report discusses the protections, prohibitions, and special rules for polar bears as well as exceptions to the rules, habitat issues, recovery plans, and other issues regarding polar bear protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of the Polar Bear?

Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of the Polar Bear?

Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses the polar bear that has been protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) since 1972. The polar bear was listed because the bear's primary habitat of sea ice was threatened with destruction due to global climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: January 28, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report looks at the distinct population segments (DPS) process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also reviews experimental populations of wolves under the ESA and their protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report analyzes the DPS designation process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also examines experimental populations of wolves under the ESA and their protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The agencies that implement the Endangered Species Act (ESA) regard the designation of critical habitat (CH) as providing only very limited benefits beyond those achieved through the listing of species and the avoidance of jeopardy to them. Several courts have now held that the relevant regulation and interpretation that result in this conclusion are erroneous and do not carry out the intent of Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law

Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

Date: May 30, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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