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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Endangered Species: Difficult Choices

Endangered Species: Difficult Choices

Date: June 14, 2004
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. L. & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses various measures being considered by Congress that propose to amend the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). Major issues in recent years have focused on whether to incorporate further protection for property owners and reduce regulatory impacts, whether to increase the protection afforded listed species, or whether to modify various aspects of the ESA, such as the role of science in decision-making.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Background and Issues

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Background and Issues

Date: June 11, 2002
Creator: Corn, M. L.
Description: The report begins with background on the geography and history of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). It also discusses the most common legislative issues, such as energy development, and provides an extensive review of the resources of the 1002 area, including the current status, regulations, and potential effects of development of those resources.A glossary is included to define the key terms and acronyms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress

Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress

Date: April 21, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) also know as mad cow disease, which is a degenerative, fatal disease affecting the nervous system in cattle. Worldwide, BSE has been found in 187,000 animals, 183,000 of them in Great Britain, where it was first detected in 1986.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 109th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 109th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

Date: October 27, 2006
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. Lynne; Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Meltz, Robert
Description: This report identifies additional bills that have been introduced in the 109th Congress to address specific concerns related to how the Endangered Species Act (ESA is implemented and how endangered species are managed, and will be updated periodically to reflect legislative action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wild Horse and Burro Issues

Wild Horse and Burro Issues

Date: December 9, 2005
Creator: Vincent, Carol H.
Description: This report discusses the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, which sought to protect wild horses and burros on federal lands and placed them under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service (FS). Management of wild horses and burros has long been controversial. Current issues include the priority to be given wild horses and burros in land use decisions, removal of animals from the range, adoption and sales programs, slaughter of animals, holding animals in facilities, use of fertility control, and costs of management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wilderness: Overview and Statistics

Wilderness: Overview and Statistics

Date: January 12, 2015
Creator: Hoover, Katie
Description: In 1964, the Wilderness Act established a national system of congressionally designated areas to be preserved in a wilderness condition: “where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.” This report provides a brief history of wilderness, describes what wilderness is, identifies permitted and prohibited uses in wilderness areas, and provides data on the 109.8 million acres of designated wilderness areas as of January 1, 2015.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: August 10, 2010
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report analyzes the DPS designation process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also examines experimental populations of wolves under the ESA and their protections. As part of its oversight responsibilities, Congress has conducted hearings on the Fish and Wildlife Service’s application of science to endangered species.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: August 17, 2011
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report analyzes the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as it applies to gray wolf wolves and, in particular, to their treatment as experimental populations (Ex Pops) and distinct population segments (DPSs).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: February 28, 2011
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report analyzes the distinct population segments (DPS) designation process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also examines experimental populations of wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report looks at the distinct population segments (DPSs) process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also reviews experimental populations of wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: November 5, 2007
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report looks at the distinct population segments (DPSs) process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also reviews experimental populations of wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their protections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
CRS Issue Statement on Animal Welfare

CRS Issue Statement on Animal Welfare

Date: January 11, 2010
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses the questions whether additional measures are needed to protect the health and well-being of animals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: April 4, 2006
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: Fish and marine mammals are important resources in open ocean and nearshore coastal areas; many federal laws and regulations guide their management. This report discusses a variety of laws and legislation pertaining to this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Legislative Actions Through the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Legislative Actions Through the 109th Congress

Date: April 9, 2007
Creator: Gillis, Anne; Corn, M. Lynne & Gelb, Bernard A.
Description: This report is intended to provide a summary of legislative attempts to address issues of energy development and preservation in the Refuge from the 95th Congress through the 109th Congress, with emphasis on the 107th through 109th Congresses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region

Date: May 25, 2010
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Upton, Harold F.; Stern, Charles V. & Nichols, James E.
Description: Four species of non-indigenous Asian carp are expanding their range in U.S. waterways, resulting in a variety of concerns and problems. Three species—bighead, silver, and black carp—are of particular note, based on the perceived degree of environmental concern. This report examines current controversy relating to what measures might be necessary and sufficient to prevent movement of Asian carp from the Mississippi River drainage into the Great Lakes through the Chicago Area Waterway System. Movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes is ultimately of concern because increased numbers of carp in the Great Lakes increases the risk that Asian carp will establish reproducing populations in these waters. Bills have been introduced in the 111th Congress to direct actions to avoid the possibility of carp becoming established in the Great Lakes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

Date: April 16, 2008
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Buck, Eugene H & Alexander, Kristina
Description: The discussion on this report is expanded for four aspects of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and its implementation that have raised concerns and promoted debate—listing species, designating critical habitat, consulting on projects, and exempting projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Lister, Sarah A & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
BSE (“Mad Cow Disease”): A Brief Overview

BSE (“Mad Cow Disease”): A Brief Overview

Date: July 18, 2006
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: The appearance of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or “mad cow disease”) in North America in 2003 raised meat safety concerns and disrupted trade for cattle and beef producers. A major issue for Congress has been how to rebuild foreign confidence in the safety of U.S. beef and regain lost markets like Japan and Korea. Among other issues are whether additional measures are needed to further protect the public and cattle herd, and concerns over the relative costs and benefits of such measures for consumers, taxpayers and industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

Date: February 7, 2007
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Porter, Donna V.
Description: Numerous federal, state, and local agencies share responsibilities for regulating the safety of the U.S. food supply, which many experts say is among the safest in the world. Nevertheless, critics view this system as lacking the organization and resources to adequately combat foodborne illness, which sickens an estimated 76 million people and kills an estimated 5,000 each year in this country. The 110th Congress may face calls for a review of federal food safety agencies and authorities, and proposals for reorganizing them. Among the issues likely to arise are whether reform can improve oversight, and the cost to industry, consumers, and taxpayers. This report provides a brief introduction to the system and the debate on whether reorganization is needed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Polar Bears: Proposed Listing Under the Endangered Species Act

Polar Bears: Proposed Listing Under the Endangered Species Act

Date: April 23, 2007
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses the proposed listing of polar bears as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; 16 U.S.C. §§1531 et seq.), which highlights the intersection of two significant issues currently before Congress — climate change and species protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), which is threefold: to provide a means to conserve ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend; to provide a program to protect those species; and to take steps to achieve the purposes of related treaties and conventions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species Act (ESA) Issues Regarding Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead

Endangered Species Act (ESA) Issues Regarding Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead

Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Buck, Eugene H.
Description: The construction and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) have reduced salmon and steelhead populations in the Columbia Basin. This report discusses the federal regulation of this system under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy

International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy

Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Wyler, Liana S. & Sheikh, Pervaze A.
Description: This report focuses on the international trade in terrestrial fauna, largely excluding trade in illegal plants, including timber, and fish. Potential issues for Congress include (1) determining funding for trade inspection and investigation; (2) evaluating effectiveness of U.S. foreign aid to combat wildlife trafficking; (3) developing ways to encourage regulation of the wildlife trade; (4) trade sanctions to penalize weak enforcement of wildlife laws; (5) incorporating wildlife trade provisions into free trade agreements; and (6) addressing the domestic and international demand for illegal wildlife.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department